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Computational and experimental assessment of natural frequencies in a bladed disk system
Mekhalfia, Mohammed Lamine; Procházka, Pavel; Maturkanič, Dušan; Voronova, Evgeniya; Hodboď, Robert
2024 - English
This paper examines the modal characteristics of a bladed disk in rotating machinery systems using a combination of analytical and experimental modal analysis methods. The analysis involves measuring natural frequencies and mode shapes under different operational conditions. A comparative analysis is conducted to assess modal properties obtained from both analytical and experimental approaches, while also considering the influence of rotation speed. Additionally, Finite Element Method (FEM) outputs are used to accurately position the strain gauge. Integrating these techniques provides a comprehensive understanding of the bladed disk's behaviour under varying rotational speeds, enhancing result accuracy and facilitating thorough investigation within rotating machinery systems. Keywords: natural frequencies; FEM; LDV; strain gauge Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Computational and experimental assessment of natural frequencies in a bladed disk system

This paper examines the modal characteristics of a bladed disk in rotating machinery systems using a combination of analytical and experimental modal analysis methods. The analysis involves measuring ...

Mekhalfia, Mohammed Lamine; Procházka, Pavel; Maturkanič, Dušan; Voronova, Evgeniya; Hodboď, Robert
Ústav termomechaniky, 2024

Flow simulations approach for flocculation tanks
Idžakovičová, Kristýna; Bílek, V.; Haidl, J.; Isoz, Martin; Pivokonský, M.
2024 - English
Flocculation in water treatment facilities plays a key role in the separation of colloidal inorganic and organic substances. Its optimization leads to a significant increase in its efficiency and savings of operational costs. However, it is currently based on trial-and-error experimental approaches. In this contribution, we focus on flow modeling in stirred flocculation tanks that would, after coupling with a calibrated model of particle aggregation, enable simulationbased flocculation optimization. Despite the abundance of literature on stirred tank modeling, there is no universal agreement on the methodology used to describe turbulence nor on the approach to the computational mesh creation. Consequently, there is no unified methodology for simulations and their validation. To address this, we present a best-practice methodology for economical, yet reliable flow simulations in the said device. This methodology includes the choice of the turbulence model, the approach to the design of a high quality mesh suitable for arbitrary geometries, and results evaluation. It is developed based on an extensive literature review, a multitude of flow simulations using several meshes of progressively higher quality and resolution, and various strategies to converge to steady-state flow conditions. The simulation quality indicators used here involve comparison with the experimental data on fluid velocity, stirrer power output, and flow rate through the impeller zone. Additionally, the resulting flow simulation models are compared using tracer transport simulations, hinting at their potential for coupling with particle aggregation models. Keywords: flocculation tank; stirring; MRF; CFD; OpenFOAM Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Flow simulations approach for flocculation tanks

Flocculation in water treatment facilities plays a key role in the separation of colloidal inorganic and organic substances. Its optimization leads to a significant increase in its efficiency and ...

Idžakovičová, Kristýna; Bílek, V.; Haidl, J.; Isoz, Martin; Pivokonský, M.
Ústav termomechaniky, 2024

A New Hollow Fiber-Based Liquid-Phase Microextraction Method for the Determination of Antihypertensive Drug Lercanidipine in Biological Samples
Labzova, O.; Hrdlička, Vojtěch; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šelešovská, R.
2024 - English
A new hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method for the determination of antihypertensive drug lercandipine (LCN) in biological samples was developed. HF-LPME was\ncombined with optimized square wave voltammetry (SWV) on a cathodically pre-treated screenprinted boron-doped diamond electrode (SP-BDDE). Optimum HF-LPME conditions were:\nsupported liquid membrane (SLM) dodecane, 0.02 mol L-1 Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB, pH = 3) acceptor phase, BRB (pH = 7) donor phase, and time of extraction 30 min. Limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) were 3.3 and 1.1 nmol L-1, respectively. The applicability of the developed method was verified on human urine, blood serum, and blood plasma with 20 and 100 nmol L-1 LCN addition. Keywords: Lercanidipine hydrochloride; Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction; Screenprinted boron-doped diamond electrode Available on request at various institutes of the ASCR
A New Hollow Fiber-Based Liquid-Phase Microextraction Method for the Determination of Antihypertensive Drug Lercanidipine in Biological Samples

A new hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method for the determination of antihypertensive drug lercandipine (LCN) in biological samples was developed. HF-LPME was\ncombined with ...

Labzova, O.; Hrdlička, Vojtěch; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šelešovská, R.
Ústav fyzikální chemie J. Heyrovského, 2024

Využití termografie v průzkumech památek
Valach, Jaroslav; Eisler, Marek
2024 - Czech
Termografie rozšiřuje portfolia metod, jimiž lze studovat vlastnosti objektů okolního světa. Ještě před deseti lety byla tato technologie kvůli potenciálním vojenským aplikacím úzkostlivě kontrolována, což omezovalo konkurenci v nabídce výrobků a výrobců a vedlo k vysokým cenám zařízení založených na těchto principech. Teprve díky uvolnění této kontroly došlo k rozmachu výroby a zpřístupnění zjednodušených výrobků masovému využití, takže si dnes může zákazník například pořídit chytrý telefon s doplňkovým termografickým modulem jen s malým navýšením ceny. Spolu s dostupností zařízení pozorujeme nárůst uplatnění termografie v mnoha oblastech, včetně průzkumů staveb a památek. Thermography expands the portfolio of methods that can be used to study the properties of objects in the surrounding world. As recently as a decade ago, the technology was frowned upon for potential military applications controlled, which limited competition in the offer of products and manufacturers and led to high prices of devices based on these principles. It was only thanks to the release of this control that it happened to expand production and make simplified products available to mass use, so get it today for example, a customer can purchase a smartphone with an additional thermographic module for only with a small price increase. Together with the availability of equipment, we observe an increase in the application of thermography in many areas, including surveys of buildings and monuments. Keywords: thermography; survey of historical structures Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Využití termografie v průzkumech památek

Termografie rozšiřuje portfolia metod, jimiž lze studovat vlastnosti objektů okolního světa. Ještě před deseti lety byla tato technologie kvůli potenciálním vojenským aplikacím úzkostlivě ...

Valach, Jaroslav; Eisler, Marek
Ústav teoretické a aplikované mechaniky, 2024

Microstructure modifications of Al-Si-coated press-hardened steel 22MnB5 by laser welding
Šebestová, Hana; Horník, Petr; Mika, Filip; Mikmeková, Šárka; Ambrož, Ondřej; Mrňa, Libor
2024 - English
Weld microstructure depends on the characteristics of welded materials and parameters of welding technology, especially on the heat input that determines the peak temperature and the cooling rate. When the coated sheets are welded, the effect of the chemical composition of the coating must be also considered even though its thickness is only a few tens of microns. During 22MnB5+AlSi laser welding experiments, the ferrite-stabilizing elements of coating modified the weld metal microstructure. Ferrite appeared in a quenched weld metal. The rapid cooling rate accompanying welding with a focused beam limited the homogenization of the weld metal which resulted in the formation of ferritic bands in the regions rich in Si and especially in Al. On the other hand, a high level of homogenization was reached when welding with the defocused beam. The ferritic islands uniformly distributed in the weld metal were formed at 0.4 wt% and 1.6 wt% of Si and Al, respectively. The doubled heat input reduced the Al content to 0.7 wt% insufficient for the ferrite formation at still relatively high cooling rates. Predicting the distribution of ferrite in the weld metal is challenging due to its dependence on various factors, such as cooling rate and the volume of dissolved coating, which may vary with any modifications made to the welding parameters. Keywords: laser welding; high-strength steel; microstructure; heat input; ferrite stabilization Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Microstructure modifications of Al-Si-coated press-hardened steel 22MnB5 by laser welding

Weld microstructure depends on the characteristics of welded materials and parameters of welding technology, especially on the heat input that determines the peak temperature and the cooling rate. ...

Šebestová, Hana; Horník, Petr; Mika, Filip; Mikmeková, Šárka; Ambrož, Ondřej; Mrňa, Libor
Ústav přístrojové techniky, 2024

Influence of ball material on the resulting fatigue life of thermal sprayed HVOF coatings in dynamic impact testing
Duliškovič, J.; Daniel, Josef; Houdková, Š.
2024 - English
Dynamic impact wear, i.e. contact between two components in the presence of high cyclic local loads, is a challenging failure mode that occurs in many mechanical applications. Many previous studies have confirmed that dynamic impact testing is suitable for evaluating the contact fatigue of thermal sprayed coatings. However, the effect of the test parameters on the resulting lifetime is unclear. The aim of this study describes the effect of the ball material used in the dynamic impact test on the resulting fatigue life of the HVOF thermal sprayed coating. Three test balls made of WC/Co alloy, Si3N4 silicon nitride and 440 C steel were chosen for this study. Dynamic impaction testing was carried out on the Cr3C2-NiCr coating, which was sprayed by HVOF on a 1.2376 high-speed steel substrate. The impact lifetime was described by the number of critical impacts, i.e. the number of impacts before coating fatigue occurs. Furthermore, the depth and volume of impact craters were measured. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface of the impacts as well as the microstructure of the coating on the cross-section in the region of the impacts were observed. Furthermore, the mechanism of crack propagation in the coating and the microstructure of the indentor were investigated. Keywords: dynamic impact test; HVOF; Cr3C2-NiCr; fatigue Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Influence of ball material on the resulting fatigue life of thermal sprayed HVOF coatings in dynamic impact testing

Dynamic impact wear, i.e. contact between two components in the presence of high cyclic local loads, is a challenging failure mode that occurs in many mechanical applications. Many previous studies ...

Duliškovič, J.; Daniel, Josef; Houdková, Š.
Ústav přístrojové techniky, 2024

Functional Tungsten-based thin films and their characterization
Košelová, Zuzana; Horáková, L.; Sobola, Dinara; Burda, Daniel; Knápek, Alexandr; Fohlerová, Z.
2024 - English
Anodizing is a technique by which thin oxide layers can be formed on a surface. Thin oxide layers have been found to be useful in a variety of applications, including emitters of electrons. Tungsten is still a common choice for cold field emitters in commercial microscopy applications. Its suitable quality can be further improved by thin film deposition. Not only the emission characteristic can be improved, but also the emitter operating time can be extended. Tungsten oxide is known for its excellent resistance to corrosion and chemical attack due to its stable crystal structure and strong chemical bonds between tungsten and oxygen atoms. Many techniques with different advantages and disadvantages have been used for this purpose. Anodization was chosen for this work because of the controllable uniform coverage of the material and its easy availability without the need for expensive complex equipment. The anodizing process involves applying an electrical potential to tungsten while it is immersed in an electrolyte solution. This creates a thin layer of tungsten oxide on the surface of the metal. The thickness and properties of the resulting oxide layer can be controlled by adjusting the anodization conditions, such as the electrolyte solution, voltage, and the duration of the process. In this work, H3PO4 was used as the electrolyte to test whether these tungsten oxide layers would be useful for electron emitters, for use in electron guns and other devices that require high-quality electron emitters. The properties were evaluated using appropriate techniques. In general, anodization of tungsten to form thin layers of tungsten oxide layers is a promising technique for producing high quality electron emitters. Keywords: cold-field emission; thin layer deposition; tungsten oxide; resonance enhanced tunneling; anodization Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Functional Tungsten-based thin films and their characterization

Anodizing is a technique by which thin oxide layers can be formed on a surface. Thin oxide layers have been found to be useful in a variety of applications, including emitters of electrons. Tungsten ...

Košelová, Zuzana; Horáková, L.; Sobola, Dinara; Burda, Daniel; Knápek, Alexandr; Fohlerová, Z.
Ústav přístrojové techniky, 2024

Surfactant-free silver nanofluids as liquid systems with neuromorphic potential
Nikitin, D.; Biliak, K.; Lemke, J.; Protsak, M.; Pleskunov, P.; Tosca, M.; Ali-Ogly, S.; Červenková, V.; Adejube, B.; Bajtošová, L.; Černochová, Zulfiya; Prokeš, J.; Křivka, I.; Biederman, H.; Faupel, F.; Vahl, A.; Choukourov, A.
2024 - English
Neuromorphic engineering is a rapidly developing branch of science that aims to implement the unique attributes of biological neural networks in artificial devices. Most neuromorphic devices are based on the resistive switching effect, which involves changing the device’s conductivity in response to an external electric field. For instance, percolating nanoparticle (NP) networks produced by gas aggregation cluster sources (GAS) show collective spiking behavior in conductivity reminiscent of brain-like dynamics. Nevertheless, the problem of dynamic spatial reconfiguration in solid-state neuromorphic systems remains unsolved. Herein, novel nanofluids with resistive switching properties are proposed as neuromorphic media. They are produced by depositing silver NPs from GAS into vacuum-compatible liquids (paraffin, silicon oil, and PEG) without the use of surfactants or other chemicals. When the electric field is applied between two electrodes, the migration of NPs toward biased electrode is detected in all liquids. The electrophoretic nature of the NP movement was proved by means of ζ-potential measurements. Such movement led to the self-assembly of NPs in conductive paths connecting the electrodes and, as a result, to resistive switching. The electrical response was strongly dependent on the dielectric constant of the base liquid. The Ag-PEG nanofluid demonstrated the best switching performance reproducible during several tens of current-voltage cycles. The growth of flexible and reconfigurable conductive filaments in nanofluids makes them suitable media for potential realization of 3D neural networks. Keywords: nanofluid; gas aggregation cluster source; ζ-potential, electrophoresis Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Surfactant-free silver nanofluids as liquid systems with neuromorphic potential

Neuromorphic engineering is a rapidly developing branch of science that aims to implement the unique attributes of biological neural networks in artificial devices. Most neuromorphic devices are based ...

Nikitin, D.; Biliak, K.; Lemke, J.; Protsak, M.; Pleskunov, P.; Tosca, M.; Ali-Ogly, S.; Červenková, V.; Adejube, B.; Bajtošová, L.; Černochová, Zulfiya; Prokeš, J.; Křivka, I.; Biederman, H.; Faupel, F.; Vahl, A.; Choukourov, A.
Ústav makromolekulární chemie, 2024

Palingeneze - obnovení všeho? (Matouš 19,28)
Dus, Jan A
2024 - Czech
V Matoušově verzi Ježíšova zaslíbení (Mt 19,28–30) oproti Markovi a Lukášovi chybí výslovná zmínka o přítomnosti: restituce všeho, co Ježíšovi následovníci opustili, se tak posouvá až do budoucnosti, ve které se chopí vlády spolu se Synem člověka. V zaslíbení figuruje raritní pojem „palingeneze“, jehož bližší časové a věcné určení nelze ze samotného souvětí odvodit. Zatímco v Mt 19,28 je palingeneze podle převažujícího výkladu synonymem pro budoucí obnovu veškerenstva, v Tt 3,5 (jediný další výskyt v NZ) odkazuje totéž slovo na znovuzrození některých lidí, ke kterému došlo v minulosti (při křtu). Ani nebiblická literatura nepřináší jednoznačný precedens – palingeneze bývá zasazována jak do minulosti, tak i do budoucnosti, týká se jak světa, tak i jednotlivců či skupin (Izraele). – Syntax a interpunkce řeckého souvětí ukazují, že oba výklady jsou rovnocenné: palingenezi lze vztáhnout buď (A) k následujícímu výrazu pro „usednutí (Syna člověka na trůn)“, tedy do budoucnosti, anebo (B) k předchozímu výrazu pro „následování (učedníků za Ježíšem)“, tedy do minulosti, kromě toho existuje (C) výklad otevřený. V řeckých, latinských a českých verzích ze 16. století jsou zastoupeny všechny možnosti: Erasmus interpunkčně opravuje Vulgátu (B), Beza nejprve respektuje Vulgátu (A), v anotacích však zvažuje druhé řešení (B), ve čtvrtém a pátém vydání nakonec nechává věc otevřenou (C), v dilematu mezi Vulgátou a Erasmem váhají i dva české překlady z první poloviny 16. stol. (náměšťský 1533, melantrišský 1556/57) (C), většina bratrských překladů počínaje Blahoslavem (1564) se odchyluje od Vulgáty (B), jen kralická Šestidílka (1593/94) váhá (C), v Šestidílce i v kralickém Novém zákoně z r. 1601 Bratří věnují oběma výkladům rovnocennou pozornost v poměrně rozsáhlé poznámce, která je pro svou vyváženost pěkným dokladem intelektuální otevřenosti a tolerance, podobně jako Beza připojují k výkladu (B) nový aspekt: palingeneze může znamenat obnovení celého světa díky evangeliu a prvnímu příchodu Mesiáše. – Vzhledem k dynamickému vývoji v 16. století je překvapivé, že všech deset sledovaných českých překladů z období kolem 20. století se shoduje jen na jedné variantě (A). Zdá se, že variantě (B) hrozí nespravedlivé zapomenutí. Proto si na závěr dovolujeme navrhnout nový, poněkud volnější překlad či parafrázi verše Mt 19,28 v kralickém duchu: „Amen, pravím vám, vy jste šli za mnou, když jsem přišel obnovit svět evangeliem, a až Syn člověka usedne na trůn své slávy, budete to zase vy, kdo usednete na dvanáct trůnů a budete soudit dvanáct kmenů Izraele.“ In Matthew’s version of Jesus’ promise (Matthew 19:28–30), in contrast to Mark and Luke, there is no explicit mention of the present time, the restitution of all that the followers of Jesus left behind is thus pushed forward to the future, in which they will take over the reigns with the Son of Man. The promise features the rare term “palingenesis”, whose precise temporal and factual determination cannot be deduced from the sentence itself. While in Mt 19:28 palingenesis is, according to the prevailing interpretation, a synonym for the future restoration of the universe, in Tit 3:5 (the only other occurrence in the NT) the same word refers to the rebirth of some people that took place in the past (at baptism). Even non-biblical literature does not provide a clear precedent - palingenesis tends to be set both in the past and in the future, it concerns both the world and individuals or groups (Israel). – The syntax and punctuation of the Greek sentence show that both interpretations are equally possible: palingenesis can be related either (A) to the following verbal form “sitting (the Son of Man on the throne)”, i.e. to the future, or (B) to the preceding verbal form “following (disciples behind Jesus)”, i.e. into the past, in addition, there is a third, open option (C). In the 16th-century Greek, Latin, and Czech versions, all possibilities are represented: Erasmus punctuates the Vulgate differently (B), Beza first respects the Vulgate (A), but in his Annotations he considers the second solution (B), in the fourth and fifth editions he finally leaves the matter open (C), two Czech translations from the first half of the 16th century (Náměšť 1533, Melantrich 1556/57) hesitate in the dilemma between the Vulgate and Erasmus (C), most Brethren translations starting with Blahoslav (1564) deviate from the Vulgate (B), only the Six-Volume Kralice Bible from 1593/94 (“Kralická Šestidílka”) hesitates (C), in “Kralická Šestidílka” and in the Kralice New Testament from 1601 the Brethren pay equal attention to both interpretations in a rather extensive note, which, for its balance, is a nice proof of intellectual openness and tolerance. Like Beza, the Brethren add a new aspect to interpretation (B): palingenesis can mean the renewal of the whole world thanks to the Gospel and the first coming of the Messiah. – Considering the dynamic development in the 16th century, it is surprising that all ten tracked Czech translations from around the 20th century agree on only one variant (A). Option (B) seems to be in danger of unfair oblivion. Therefore, in conclusion, we allow ourselves to propose a new, somewhat looser translation or paraphrase of verse Mt 19:28 in the spirit of Kralice: “Amen, I say to you, it was you who followed me when I came to renew the world with the gospel, and when the Son of Man sits on the throne of his glory, it will be you again who will sit on twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel.” Keywords: palingenesis; Gospel of Matthew; Kralice Bible; Erasmus of Rotterdam; Theodore Beza; Vulgate; Czech Bible translations Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Palingeneze - obnovení všeho? (Matouš 19,28)

V Matoušově verzi Ježíšova zaslíbení (Mt 19,28–30) oproti Markovi a Lukášovi chybí výslovná zmínka o přítomnosti: restituce všeho, co Ježíšovi následovníci opustili, se tak posouvá až do budoucnosti, ...

Dus, Jan A
Filosofický ústav, 2024

Electrochemical Properties of Pretomanid. New drug for Tuberculosis Treatment
Deri, M.; Vespi, M.; Giannarelli, S.; Hromadová, Magdaléna
2024 - English
The electrochemical behavior of Pretomanid (PA 824) has been investigated in acetonitrile by cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates and compared to dimetridazole reduction in order to elucidate its redox mechanism. Both compounds show similar reduction behavior in the aprotic solvent that involves one electron transfer to the nitro group. The reduction of Pretomanid is more difficult and the stability of its nitro anion radical is much lower compared to the dimetridazole molecule. Keywords: pretomanid; dimetridazole; cyclic voltammetry; reduction mechanism Available on request at various institutes of the ASCR
Electrochemical Properties of Pretomanid. New drug for Tuberculosis Treatment

The electrochemical behavior of Pretomanid (PA 824) has been investigated in acetonitrile by cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates and compared to dimetridazole reduction in order to elucidate ...

Deri, M.; Vespi, M.; Giannarelli, S.; Hromadová, Magdaléna
Ústav fyzikální chemie J. Heyrovského, 2024

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