Number of found documents: 1090
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Income tax evasion: tax elasticity, welfare, and revenue
Gillman, Max
2020 - English
This paper provides a general equilibrium model of income tax evasion. As functions of the share of income reported, the paper contributes an analytic derivation of the tax elasticity of taxable income, the welfare cost of the tax, and government revenue as a percent of output. It shows how an increase in the tax rate causes the tax elasticity and welfare cost to increase in magnitude by more than with zero evasion. Keeping constant the ratio of income tax revenue to output, as shown to be consistent with certain US evidence, a rising productivity of the goods sector induces less evasion and thereby allows tax rate reduction. The paper derives conditions for a stable share of income tax revenue in output with dependence upon the tax elasticity of reporting income. Examples are provided with less and more productive economies in terms of the tax elasticity of reported income, the welfare cost of taxation and the tax revenue as a percent of output, with sensitivity analysis with respect to leisure preference and goods productivity. Discussion focuses on how the tax evasion analysis may help explain such Öscal tax policy as the postwar US income tax rate reductions with discussion of tax acts and government Öscal multipliers. Fiscal policy with tax evasion included shows how tax rate reduction induces less tax evasion, a lower welfare cost of taxation, and makes for a stable income tax share of output. Keywords: optimal evasion; tax law; welfare Fulltext is available at external website.
Income tax evasion: tax elasticity, welfare, and revenue

This paper provides a general equilibrium model of income tax evasion. As functions of the share of income reported, the paper contributes an analytic derivation of the tax elasticity of taxable ...

Gillman, Max
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Sorting of candidates: evidence from 20,000 electoral ballots
Svitáková, Klára; Šoltés, Michal
2020 - English
Using over 20,000 electoral ballots from proportional representation elections, we document that political parties systematically sort candidates on the ballots according to their valence and intra party value. Valence, measured by education level, captures the public value of the candidates, while intra party value, measured by political donations and membership, represents the value of the candidate to the party. The patterns we observe are consistent with market mechanisms between candidates and party leaders where the party leaders benefit from the valence and intra party value of candidates and offer ballot positions (i.e. the probability of winning a seat) in exchange. We show that candidates with high valence and those who possess more intra party value are placed in higher level positions, despite the fact that candidates with more intra party value tend to receive relatively fewer votes than their counterparts with the same characteristics in the same position on the ballot. We also show that as a party expects to hold more council seats and thus has more bargaining power over candidates, the share of their candidates with higher intra party value increases. Overall, we provide strong evidence that political parties skew political representation based on a quid pro quo relationship with the candidates. Keywords: ballots; election; party Fulltext is available at external website.
Sorting of candidates: evidence from 20,000 electoral ballots

Using over 20,000 electoral ballots from proportional representation elections, we document that political parties systematically sort candidates on the ballots according to their valence and intra ...

Svitáková, Klára; Šoltés, Michal
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Firm leverage and wealth inequality
Bakota, Ivo
2020 - English
This paper studies the effects of a change in firm leverage on wealth inequality and macroeconomic aggregates. The question is studied in a general equilibrium model with a continuum of heterogeneous agents, life-cycle, incomplete markets, and idiosyncratic and aggregate risk. The analysis focuses on the particular change in firm leverage that occurred in the U.S. during the 1980s, when firm leverage increased significantly, and subsequently has been dropping since the early 1990s. In the benchmark model, an increase in firm leverage of the size that occurred during the 1980s increases capital accumulation by 5.38%, decreases wealth inequality by 1.07 Gini points and decreases government revenues by 0.11% of output. An increase in firm leverage increases average after-tax returns on savings, as firm debt has beneficial tax treatment. This increases the saving rates of all households, and disproportionately increases the saving rates of relatively poorer households. Consequently, the model implies that the increase in firm leverage did not contribute to rising inequality in the U.S. in the 1980s, but rather the opposite, that the reduction in leverage from the early 1990s to 2008 has contributed to rising wealth inequality. Furthermore, I show that if the model abstracts from beneficial tax treatment of corporate debt, the change in leverage has only minor effects on macro aggregates and inequality, despite having significant implications for asset prices. This is consistent with the previous result in the literature showing that the Modigliani-Miller theorem approximately holds in the heterogeneous agents model with imperfect markets. Keywords: portfolio choice; heterogeneous agents; life-cycle Fulltext is available at external website.
Firm leverage and wealth inequality

This paper studies the effects of a change in firm leverage on wealth inequality and macroeconomic aggregates. The question is studied in a general equilibrium model with a continuum of heterogeneous ...

Bakota, Ivo
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Redistributive capital taxation revisited
Kina, Ö.; Slavík, Ctirad; Yazici, H.
2020 - English
This paper shows that capital-skill complementarity provides a quantitatively significant rationale to tax capital for redistributive governments. The optimal capital income tax rate is 60%, which is significantly higher than the optimal rate of 48% in an identically calibrated model without capital-skill complementarity. The skill premium falls from 1.9 to 1.67 along the transition following the optimal reform in the capital-skill complementarity model, implying substantial indirect redistribution from skilled to unskilled workers. These results show that a government that cares about redistribution should take into account capital-skill complementarity in production when setting the tax rate on capital income. Keywords: capital taxation; capital-skill complementarity; inequality Fulltext is available at external website.
Redistributive capital taxation revisited

This paper shows that capital-skill complementarity provides a quantitatively significant rationale to tax capital for redistributive governments. The optimal capital income tax rate is 60%, which is ...

Kina, Ö.; Slavík, Ctirad; Yazici, H.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Short-time work and related measures to mitigate the consequences of a (partial) economic shutdown
Mittag, Nikolas; Pertold, Filip
2020 - English
The objective of this document is to provide a basic foundation to think about the merits, alternatives and policy design choices of short-time work policies. The first section characterizes the motivation for short-term work and the types of costs that it can help to reduce or cause. The second section briefly overviews key policy alternatives and their merits, to lay out where short-time work has the potential to be useful, and what alternative tools can amend or replace it. This is followed by an overview of short-time work policies from the last recession and key lessons learned from that experience. The document closes with an overview of short-time work policies already enacted in response to the current economic situation. The main aim of this document is to draw general policy conclusions for the current situation in the Czech Republic based on the reviews and considerations in the first two sections. Section 3 will attempt to do so. Readers who are primarily interested in specific policies or those familiar with the literature on short-time work may want to go straight to Section 3. Keywords: COVID-19; Czech Republic Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Short-time work and related measures to mitigate the consequences of a (partial) economic shutdown

The objective of this document is to provide a basic foundation to think about the merits, alternatives and policy design choices of short-time work policies. The first section characterizes the ...

Mittag, Nikolas; Pertold, Filip
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Capital income taxation with portfolio choice
Bakota, Ivo
2020 - English
This paper analyzes redistributional and macroeconomic effects of differential taxation of financial assets with a different risk levels. The redistributive effect stems from the fact that various households hold portfolios with a starkly different risk levels. In particular, poor households primarily save in safe assets, while rich households often invest a substantially higher share of their wealth in (risky) equity. At the same time, equity and safe assets are often taxed at different rates in many tax codes. This is primarily because investments in equity (which are relatively riskier) are taxed both as corporate and personal income, unlike debt, which is tax deductible for corporations. This paper firstly builds a simple theoretical two-period model which shows that the optimal tax wedge between risky and safe assets is increasing in the underlying wealth inequality. Furthermore, I build a quantitative model with a continuum of heterogeneous agents, parsimonious life-cycle, borrowing constraint, aggregate shocks and uninsurable idiosyncratic shocks, in which the government raises revenue by using linear taxes on risky and safe assets. Simulations of quantitative models shows that elimination of differential asset taxation leads to a welfare loss equivalent to a 0.3% permanent reduction in consumption. I find that the optimal tax wedge between taxes on equity and debt is higher than the one in the U.S. tax code.\n Keywords: portfolio choice; optimal taxation; redistribution Fulltext is available at external website.
Capital income taxation with portfolio choice

This paper analyzes redistributional and macroeconomic effects of differential taxation of financial assets with a different risk levels. The redistributive effect stems from the fact that various ...

Bakota, Ivo
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Corporate profitability and the global persistence of corruption
Ferris, S. P.; Hanousek, Jan; Trešl, Jiří
2020 - English
We examine the persistence of corporate corruption for a sample of privately-held firms from 12 Central and Eastern European countries over the period 2001 to 2015. Creating a proxy for corporate corruption based on a firm’s internal inefficiency, we find that corruption enhances a firm’s profitability. A channel analysis further reveals that inflating staff costs is the most common approach by which firms divert funds to finance corruption. We conclude that corruption persists because of its ability to improve a firm’s return on assets, which we refer to as the Corporate Advantage Hypothesis. Keywords: corruption; inefficiency; performance Fulltext is available at external website.
Corporate profitability and the global persistence of corruption

We examine the persistence of corporate corruption for a sample of privately-held firms from 12 Central and Eastern European countries over the period 2001 to 2015. Creating a proxy for corporate ...

Ferris, S. P.; Hanousek, Jan; Trešl, Jiří
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

M&A activity and the capital structure of target firms
Flannery, M. J.; Hanousek, Jan; Shamshur, Anastasiya; Trešl, Jiří
2020 - English
Using a large sample of European acquisitions, we find that acquired firms substantially close the gap between their actual and optimal leverage ratios. The bulk of this adjustment occurs quite rapidly – within a year of the acquisition. The typical over-levered firm adjusts its debtto-assets ratio from 34.4% in the year before acquisition to 20% in the year after. (The adjustment is smaller, but still quite rapid, for targets that had been under-leveraged.) These adjustments occur primarily through debt issuances or retirements. We also investigate whether target firms’ pre-merger leverage contributes to the probability of them being acquired. We find that firms further away from their optimal leverage are more likely to be acquired: for an average firm, an increase in the absolute leverage deviation from 1% to 10% of total assets increases the probability of being acquired by 4.1% to 5.6% (The larger effect applies to overleveraged firms.) Overall, our results provide support for the trade-off theory of capital structure and suggest that financial synergies have a significant role in the typical European acquisition decision. Keywords: M&A; target capital structure; leverage deficit Fulltext is available at external website.
M&A activity and the capital structure of target firms

Using a large sample of European acquisitions, we find that acquired firms substantially close the gap between their actual and optimal leverage ratios. The bulk of this adjustment occurs quite ...

Flannery, M. J.; Hanousek, Jan; Shamshur, Anastasiya; Trešl, Jiří
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Firm life cycle and cost of debt
Amin, A.; Bowler, B.; Hasan, M. M.; Lobo, G. L.; Trešl, Jiří
2020 - English
This paper examines the relation between the corporate life cycle and lending spreads. Using a sample of 20,307 firm-loan observations spanning 5,076 publicly traded U.S. firms, we find that lending spreads follow a U-shape pattern across the life cycle phases. This pattern is in addition to the variation explained by typical controls. In a multivariate analysis, we find that firms in the introduction and decline phases pay lending spreads that are greater than firms in the mature phase (differences of 6 percent and 12 percent, respectively). We explore omitted variables bias and instrumental variable estimation in robustness testing and find that the shape pattern persists. Our findings are consistent with theoretical predictions regarding the relationship between the corporate life cycle and various lending risks. Keywords: firm life cycle; cost of debt; bank loans Fulltext is available at external website.
Firm life cycle and cost of debt

This paper examines the relation between the corporate life cycle and lending spreads. Using a sample of 20,307 firm-loan observations spanning 5,076 publicly traded U.S. firms, we find that lending ...

Amin, A.; Bowler, B.; Hasan, M. M.; Lobo, G. L.; Trešl, Jiří
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Private and public IPR protection in a vertically differentiated software duopoly
Žigić, Krešimir; Střelický, J.; Kúnin, Michael
2020 - English
We study the interaction between public and private intellectual property rights (IPR) protection in a duopoly in which software developers offer a product variety of differing quality and compete for heterogeneous users, who have an option to buy a legal version, possibly use an illegal copy, or not buy a product at all. Illegal usage implies violation of IPR and is punishable. A developer may use private IPR protection for his software if the level of piracy is high. An important intermediate step in our analysis addresses firms’ pricing strategies and the analysis of the impact of both private and public IPR protection on these strategies (with monopoly serving as a benchmark case). Last but not least, we make some comparisons with an analogous model based on horizontal product differentiation. Keywords: vertically differentiated duopoly; software piracy; Bertrand competition Fulltext is available at external website.
Private and public IPR protection in a vertically differentiated software duopoly

We study the interaction between public and private intellectual property rights (IPR) protection in a duopoly in which software developers offer a product variety of differing quality and compete for ...

Žigić, Krešimir; Střelický, J.; Kúnin, Michael
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

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