Number of found documents: 833
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Czech kurzarbeit: evidence from the first pandemic wave
Jurajda, Štěpán; Doleželová, P.
2021 - English
We describe the firm-type structure of the use of the main Czech kurzarbeit program (called Antivirus B) during the spring 2020 pandemic wave. Evidence based on the Structure of Earnings Survey shows large participation gaps in favor of large employers, and disproportionately high intensity of use of the program by manufacturing companies, in particular those exhibiting a declining wage bill already prior to the pandemic. Compared to other industries, manufacturing is thus able to ‘cover’ by kurzarbeit support the largest share of the decline in hours worked between the 2nd quarters of 2019 and 2020, with the exception of the hospitality and culture industries, which were directly affected by pandemic measures, such as restaurant closures. Keywords: kurzarbeit; COVID-19; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Czech kurzarbeit: evidence from the first pandemic wave

We describe the firm-type structure of the use of the main Czech kurzarbeit program (called Antivirus B) during the spring 2020 pandemic wave. Evidence based on the Structure of Earnings Survey shows ...

Jurajda, Štěpán; Doleželová, P.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

LATE estimators under costly noncompliance in student-college matching markets
Drlje, M.; Jurajda, Štěpán
2021 - English
A growing literature exploits a feature of centralized college admission systems where students with similar admission scores in a neighborhood of a school’s admission threshold are or are not offered admission based on small quasi-random differences in admission scores. Assuming that the students at the margin of admission differ only in the treatment assignment, this literature relies on admission scores to instrument for admission or graduation. We point out that non-compliance with the centralized matching assignment typically corresponds to enrolling in one’s preferred program a year after the initial assignment, introducing significant non-compliance costs. We show that with costly non-compliance, the exclusion restriction, the key assumption of the LATE theorem, is violated, leading to biased estimates when instrumenting for graduation, i.e., for a treatment taking place after non-compliance costs are incurred. We use data from a student-college matching market in Croatia to illustrate the empirical importance of this potential source of bias and propose a method inspired by Lee (2009), which recovers the treatment effect bounds under the assumption that the costs of non-compliance are not related to the treatment assignment. Keywords: LATE theorem; exclusion restriction; college admission Fulltext is available at external website.
LATE estimators under costly noncompliance in student-college matching markets

A growing literature exploits a feature of centralized college admission systems where students with similar admission scores in a neighborhood of a school’s admission threshold are or are not offered ...

Drlje, M.; Jurajda, Štěpán
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Práce z domova: možnost, nebo nutnost?
Grossmann, Jakub; Korbel, Václav; Münich, Daniel
2021 - Czech
Studie mapuje rozsah vyuţívání práce z domova v České republice během koronavirového roku 2020 napříč sociodemografickými skupinami. Ukazuje, jak s přechodem na práci z domova souvisí charakteristiky pracujících, jako jsou vzdělání, odvětví, pohlaví, péče o menší dítě v domácnosti. Analýza také odhaluje vnímané překáţky a výhody práce z domova. The study describes the use of work from home across socio-demographic groups in the Czech Republic during the coronavirus year 2020. It shows how work-from-home arrangements relate to workers' characteristics, such as their education, industry, gender, and type of household. The analysis reveals the perceived barriers to and benefits of working from home. Keywords: working from home; Czech Republic; covid-19 Fulltext is available at external website.
Práce z domova: možnost, nebo nutnost?

Studie mapuje rozsah vyuţívání práce z domova v České republice během koronavirového roku 2020 napříč sociodemografickými skupinami. Ukazuje, jak s přechodem na práci z domova souvisí charakteristiky ...

Grossmann, Jakub; Korbel, Václav; Münich, Daniel
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Make your own luck: the wage gains from starting college in a bad economy
Bičáková, Alena; Cortes, G. M.; Mazza, J.
2021 - English
Using data for nearly 40 cohorts of American college graduates and exploiting regional variation in economic conditions, we show robust evidence of a positive relationship between the unemployment rate at the time of college enrollment and subsequent annual earnings, particularly for women. This positive relationship cannot be explained by selection into employment or by economic conditions at the time of graduation. Changes in major field of study account for only about 10% of the observed earnings gains. The results are consistent with intensified effort exerted by students who experience bad economic times at the beginning of their studies. Keywords: business cycle; higher education; cohort effects Fulltext is available at external website.
Make your own luck: the wage gains from starting college in a bad economy

Using data for nearly 40 cohorts of American college graduates and exploiting regional variation in economic conditions, we show robust evidence of a positive relationship between the unemployment ...

Bičáková, Alena; Cortes, G. M.; Mazza, J.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Kdo v první vlně pandemie zachránil zaměstnance? Analýza čerpání podpory programu Antivirus B
Jurajda, Štěpán; Doleželová, P.; Zapletalová, Lucie
2021 - Czech
Studie srovnává strukturu využití programu Antivirus B českými firmami v druhé čtvrtině roku 2020, tedy v průběhu první „jarní vlny“ epidemie covid-19. Srovnání je provedeno se strukturou ekonomiky a strukturou poptávkových šoků aproximovaných poklesem odpracovaných hodin oproti druhému kvartálu roku 2019. Studie dává příklad, jak tento typ programů do budoucna průběžně monitorovat. Zjištění studie lze použít při rozhodování o podobě dlouhodobého nastavení nástroje typu kurzarbeit v českém právním řádu. This study examines the structure of Czech firms’ use of the Antivirus B programme in the second quarter of 2020, i.e. during the first “spring wave” of the Covid-19 epidemic. We compare application of the programme benefits with the structure of the economy and with the structure of demand shocks, approximated by the drop in hours worked against those worked in the second quarter of 2019. The study provides an example of how this type of programme could be continuously monitored in the future. The study’s findings can be useful when making long term decisions about how to set up tools such as kurzarbeit in Czech legislation. Keywords: kurzarbeit; Covid-19; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Kdo v první vlně pandemie zachránil zaměstnance? Analýza čerpání podpory programu Antivirus B

Studie srovnává strukturu využití programu Antivirus B českými firmami v druhé čtvrtině roku 2020, tedy v průběhu první „jarní vlny“ epidemie covid-19. Srovnání je provedeno se strukturou ekonomiky a ...

Jurajda, Štěpán; Doleželová, P.; Zapletalová, Lucie
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Learning about ethnic discrimination from different information sources
Korlyakova, Darya
2021 - English
We experimentally study whether public beliefs about ethnic discrimination, an emotionally loaded issue, are shifted more by information from experts or from ordinary people. We also examine whether people are inclined to choose the most influential sources. For this purpose, we combine, in a novel design, the random provision of information from different sources with endogenous information acquisition from the same sources. We find that individuals update their beliefs most in response to information from experts, namely researchers studying ethnic minorities and human resource managers. Exogenous adjustments in beliefs do not induce changes in attitudes to ethnic minorities. Consistent with the strength of belief updating, more individuals choose information from experts over information from ordinary people. This result suggests that, in the aggregate, people behave rationally as they favor a source that is perceived to be relatively accurate. The findings have implications for information dissemination policies. Keywords: ethnic discrimination; beliefs; information sources Fulltext is available at external website.
Learning about ethnic discrimination from different information sources

We experimentally study whether public beliefs about ethnic discrimination, an emotionally loaded issue, are shifted more by information from experts or from ordinary people. We also examine whether ...

Korlyakova, Darya
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Sequential vote buying
Chen, Y.; Zápal, Jan
2021 - English
To enact a policy, a leader needs votes from committee members with heterogeneous opposition intensities. She sequentially offers transfers in exchange for votes. The transfers are either promises paid only if the policy passes or paid up front. With transfer promises, a vote costs nearly zero. With up-front payments, a vote can cost significantly more than zero, but the leader is better off with up-front payments. The leader does not necessarily buy the votes of those least opposed. The opposition structure most challenging to the leader involves either a homogeneous committee or a committee with two homogenous groups. Our results provide an explanation for several empirical regularities: lobbying of strongly opposed legislators, the Tullock Paradox and expansion of the whip system in the U.S. House concurrent with ideological homogenization of parties. We also discuss several extensions including private histories and simultaneous offers. Keywords: vote buying; legislative bargaining; coalition building Fulltext is available at external website.
Sequential vote buying

To enact a policy, a leader needs votes from committee members with heterogeneous opposition intensities. She sequentially offers transfers in exchange for votes. The transfers are either promises ...

Chen, Y.; Zápal, Jan
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Paternal circular migration and development of socio-emotional skills of children left behind
Adunts, Davit
2021 - English
This study investigates the short-run effect of paternal absence due to circular migration on the socio-emotional skills of their children left behind. To address the endogeneity of the migration decision, and building on previous studies, this study focuses on children whose fathers have all engaged in circular migration. Furthermore, using quasi-exogenous variation in the timing of return migration induced by bilateral migration laws between Ukraine and Poland, I circumvent the bias related to the return migration decision. The findings of this study suggest that current paternal absence due to circular migration negatively affects the socioemotional skills of children left behind. Overall, this result suggests that circular migration is not necessarily a „triple-win“ solution that benefits all involved parties. Keywords: circular migration; children left behind; perseverance skills Fulltext is available at external website.
Paternal circular migration and development of socio-emotional skills of children left behind

This study investigates the short-run effect of paternal absence due to circular migration on the socio-emotional skills of their children left behind. To address the endogeneity of the migration ...

Adunts, Davit
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Sick pay and absence from work: evidence from flu exposure
Grossmann, Jakub
2021 - English
The system of sick-pay is critical for balancing the economic and health costs of infectious diseases. Surprisingly, most research on sick-pay reforms does not rely on variation in worker exposure to diseases when investigating absences from work. This paper studies the effects on absences from work of changes in health-insurance coverage of the first three days of sickness. We explore geographic variation in the prevalence of infectious diseases, primarily the seasonal flu, to provide variation in the need for sickness insurance. Estimates based on the Czech Structure of Earnings Survey imply that when sickness insurance is not available, total hours of work missed are not affected, but employees rely on paid and unpaid leave instead of sick-leave to stay home. The substitution effects are heterogenous across occupations and socio-demographic characteristics of employees, and suggest that workers do not spread infectious diseases at the workplace as a result of the absence of sickness insurance coverage in the first three days of sickness. Keywords: sickness insurance; exposure to sickness; policy reform Fulltext is available at external website.
Sick pay and absence from work: evidence from flu exposure

The system of sick-pay is critical for balancing the economic and health costs of infectious diseases. Surprisingly, most research on sick-pay reforms does not rely on variation in worker exposure to ...

Grossmann, Jakub
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Shrinkage for Gaussian and t copulas in ultra-high dimensions
Anatolyev, Stanislav; Pyrlik, Vladimir
2021 - English
Copulas are a convenient framework to synthesize joint distributions, particularly in higher dimensions. Currently, copula-based high dimensional settings are used for as many as a few hundred variables and require large data samples for estimation to be precise. In this paper, we employ shrinkage techniques for large covariance matrices in the problem of estimation of Gaussian and t copulas whose dimensionality goes well beyond that typical in the literature. Specifically, we use the covariance matrix shrinkage of Ledoit and Wolf to estimate large matrix parameters of Gaussian and t copulas for up to thousands of variables, using up to 20 times lower sample sizes. The simulation study shows that the shrinkage estimation significantly outperforms traditional estimators, both in low and especially high dimensions. We also apply this approach to the problem of allocation of large portfolios. Keywords: Gaussian copula; t copula; high dimensionality Fulltext is available at external website.
Shrinkage for Gaussian and t copulas in ultra-high dimensions

Copulas are a convenient framework to synthesize joint distributions, particularly in higher dimensions. Currently, copula-based high dimensional settings are used for as many as a few hundred ...

Anatolyev, Stanislav; Pyrlik, Vladimir
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

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