Number of found documents: 820
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Czech kurzarbeit: evidence from the first pandemic wave
Jurajda, Štěpán; Doleželová, P.
2021 - English
We describe the firm-type structure of the use of the main Czech kurzarbeit program (called Antivirus B) during the spring 2020 pandemic wave. Evidence based on the Structure of Earnings Survey shows large participation gaps in favor of large employers, and disproportionately high intensity of use of the program by manufacturing companies, in particular those exhibiting a declining wage bill already prior to the pandemic. Compared to other industries, manufacturing is thus able to ‘cover’ by kurzarbeit support the largest share of the decline in hours worked between the 2nd quarters of 2019 and 2020, with the exception of the hospitality and culture industries, which were directly affected by pandemic measures, such as restaurant closures. Keywords: kurzarbeit; COVID-19; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Czech kurzarbeit: evidence from the first pandemic wave

We describe the firm-type structure of the use of the main Czech kurzarbeit program (called Antivirus B) during the spring 2020 pandemic wave. Evidence based on the Structure of Earnings Survey shows ...

Jurajda, Štěpán; Doleželová, P.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

LATE estimators under costly noncompliance in student-college matching markets
Drlje, M.; Jurajda, Štěpán
2021 - English
A growing literature exploits a feature of centralized college admission systems where students with similar admission scores in a neighborhood of a school’s admission threshold are or are not offered admission based on small quasi-random differences in admission scores. Assuming that the students at the margin of admission differ only in the treatment assignment, this literature relies on admission scores to instrument for admission or graduation. We point out that non-compliance with the centralized matching assignment typically corresponds to enrolling in one’s preferred program a year after the initial assignment, introducing significant non-compliance costs. We show that with costly non-compliance, the exclusion restriction, the key assumption of the LATE theorem, is violated, leading to biased estimates when instrumenting for graduation, i.e., for a treatment taking place after non-compliance costs are incurred. We use data from a student-college matching market in Croatia to illustrate the empirical importance of this potential source of bias and propose a method inspired by Lee (2009), which recovers the treatment effect bounds under the assumption that the costs of non-compliance are not related to the treatment assignment. Keywords: LATE theorem; exclusion restriction; college admission Fulltext is available at external website.
LATE estimators under costly noncompliance in student-college matching markets

A growing literature exploits a feature of centralized college admission systems where students with similar admission scores in a neighborhood of a school’s admission threshold are or are not offered ...

Drlje, M.; Jurajda, Štěpán
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Learning about ethnic discrimination from different information sources
Korlyakova, Darya
2021 - English
We experimentally study whether public beliefs about ethnic discrimination, an emotionally loaded issue, are shifted more by information from experts or from ordinary people. We also examine whether people are inclined to choose the most influential sources. For this purpose, we combine, in a novel design, the random provision of information from different sources with endogenous information acquisition from the same sources. We find that individuals update their beliefs most in response to information from experts, namely researchers studying ethnic minorities and human resource managers. Exogenous adjustments in beliefs do not induce changes in attitudes to ethnic minorities. Consistent with the strength of belief updating, more individuals choose information from experts over information from ordinary people. This result suggests that, in the aggregate, people behave rationally as they favor a source that is perceived to be relatively accurate. The findings have implications for information dissemination policies. Keywords: ethnic discrimination; beliefs; information sources Fulltext is available at external website.
Learning about ethnic discrimination from different information sources

We experimentally study whether public beliefs about ethnic discrimination, an emotionally loaded issue, are shifted more by information from experts or from ordinary people. We also examine whether ...

Korlyakova, Darya
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Sick pay and absence from work: evidence from flu exposure
Grossmann, Jakub
2021 - English
The system of sick-pay is critical for balancing the economic and health costs of infectious diseases. Surprisingly, most research on sick-pay reforms does not rely on variation in worker exposure to diseases when investigating absences from work. This paper studies the effects on absences from work of changes in health-insurance coverage of the first three days of sickness. We explore geographic variation in the prevalence of infectious diseases, primarily the seasonal flu, to provide variation in the need for sickness insurance. Estimates based on the Czech Structure of Earnings Survey imply that when sickness insurance is not available, total hours of work missed are not affected, but employees rely on paid and unpaid leave instead of sick-leave to stay home. The substitution effects are heterogenous across occupations and socio-demographic characteristics of employees, and suggest that workers do not spread infectious diseases at the workplace as a result of the absence of sickness insurance coverage in the first three days of sickness. Keywords: sickness insurance; exposure to sickness; policy reform Fulltext is available at external website.
Sick pay and absence from work: evidence from flu exposure

The system of sick-pay is critical for balancing the economic and health costs of infectious diseases. Surprisingly, most research on sick-pay reforms does not rely on variation in worker exposure to ...

Grossmann, Jakub
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

The effects of minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic
Grossmann, Jakub
2021 - English
This paper analyzes employment effects of four minimum wage increases implemented in the Czech Republic during 2012-2017, which cumulatively increased the national minimum wage by 37 percent. We analyze outcomes at the level of firm-occupation-county-specific job cells and apply an intensity-treatment estimator similar to that of Machin et al. (2003). Our preferred specifications suggest that minimum wage increases led to higher wages for low-paid workers and did not have significant impacts on their employment. Keywords: minimum wage; intensity treatment; job cells Fulltext is available at external website.
The effects of minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic

This paper analyzes employment effects of four minimum wage increases implemented in the Czech Republic during 2012-2017, which cumulatively increased the national minimum wage by 37 percent. We ...

Grossmann, Jakub
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Forced migration, staying minorities, and new societies: evidence from post-war Czechoslovakia
Grossmann, Jakub; Jurajda, Štěpán; Roesel, F.
2021 - English
Forced migration traumatizes millions displaced from their homes, but little is known about the few who manage to stay and become a minority in a new society. We study the case of German stayers in Sudetenland, a region from which Czechoslovakia expelled ethnic Germans after World War Two. The unexpected presence of the US Army in parts of 1945 Czechoslovakia resulted in more anti-fascist Germans avoiding displacement compared to regions liberated by the Red Army. We study the long-run impacts of this local variation in the presence of left-leaning stayers and find that Communist party support and local party cell frequencies, as well as far-left values and social policies are more pronounced today where anti-fascist Germans stayed in larger numbers. Our findings also suggest that political identity supplanted German ethnic identity among anti-fascist stayers. The German staying minority shaped the political identity of newly formed local societies after ethnic cleansing by providing the ‘small seed’ of political development. Keywords: forced migration; displacement; ethnic cleansing Fulltext is available at external website.
Forced migration, staying minorities, and new societies: evidence from post-war Czechoslovakia

Forced migration traumatizes millions displaced from their homes, but little is known about the few who manage to stay and become a minority in a new society. We study the case of German stayers in ...

Grossmann, Jakub; Jurajda, Štěpán; Roesel, F.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Wages, minimum wages, and price pass-through: the case of McDonald's restaurants
Ashenfelter, O.; Jurajda, Štěpán
2021 - English
We use highly consistent national-coverage price and wage data to provide evidence on wage increases, labor-saving technology introduction, and price pass-through by a large low-wage employer facing minimum wage hikes. Based on 2016-2020 hourly wage rates of McDonald’s Basic Crew and prices of the Big Mac sandwich collected simultaneously from almost all US McDonald’s restaurants, we find that in about 25% of instances of minimum wage increases, restaurants display a tendency to keep constant their wage ‘premium’ above the increasing minimum wage. Higher minimum wages are not associated with faster adoption of touch-screen ordering, and there is near-full price pass-through of minimum wages, with little heterogeneity related to how binding minimum wage increases are for restaurants. Minimum wage hikes lead to increases in real wages (expressed in Big Macs an hour of Basic Crew work can buy) that are one fifth lower than the corresponding increases in nominal wages. Keywords: minimum wages; wage increases; McDonald’s Fulltext is available at external website.
Wages, minimum wages, and price pass-through: the case of McDonald's restaurants

We use highly consistent national-coverage price and wage data to provide evidence on wage increases, labor-saving technology introduction, and price pass-through by a large low-wage employer facing ...

Ashenfelter, O.; Jurajda, Štěpán
Národohospodářský ústav, 2021

Platy učitelů v roce 2019: blýská se na lepší časy?
Münich, Daniel; Smolka, Vladimír
2020 - Czech
Co do relativní úrovně učitelských platů vůči ostatním vysokoškolsky vzdělaným zaměstnancům si Česko dlouhodobě vede velmi špatně. Ještě v roce 2018 patřilo Česku poslední pořadí ze všech ekonomicky vyspělých zemí. Relativní úroveň platů přitom spoluurčuje atraktivitu učitelské profese a zájem o ní. Atraktivitu vyžaduje nejen potřeba zajištění dostatku učitelů, ale umožňuje uplatňovat výběrovost s důrazem na kvalitu práce učitelů. Nedávno zveřejněné podrobné národní údaje za rok 2019, na kterých je založena tato studie, ukazují, že se situace začala výrazně zlepšovat. A podle původního slibu současné vlády by to mělo pokračovat i v letech 2020 a 2021. Průměrný plat učitelů základních škol (ZŠ) v roce 2019 dosáhl 123,5 % průměrného platu v ekonomice, oproti 114,3 % v roce 2018. Relativní platy učitelů tak po téměř patnácti letech překonaly historické maximum z roku 2006. Tempa růstu učitelských platů v roce 2019 výrazně převyšovala tempa u vysokoškolsky vzdělaných zaměstnanců veřejného sektoru a velmi výrazně sektoru podnikatelského. Během dvou let 2018–2019 tak průměrný i mediánový plat učitele vzrostl o více než 28 %. Odpovídající růst u vysokoškolsky vzdělaných zaměstnanců veřejného sektoru byl 19,8 % a v podnikatelském sektoru pouze 14,1 %.\n As far as the relative level of pay for teachers compared to other university-educated employees is concerned, the Czech Republic has long occupied a very low position relative to other developed countries. As recently as 2018, the country ranked lowest on this front among all the OECD countries. The relative level of teachers’ pay is one of the factors that determine the attractiveness of the teaching profession. The teaching profession needs to be attractive not only in order to ensure a sufficient supply of teaching staff but also to enable selectivity in teacher recruitment, with an emphasis on teacher quality. The national data for 2019, which have recently been published and on which this study is based, show that this situation has begun to improve substantially. If the pledges originally made by the current government are anything to go by, this situation ought to further improve substantially during 2020 and 2021. In 2019 primary school teachers’ average pay reached 123.5% of the average salary in the national economy, up from 114.3% in 2018. This means that teachers’ relative pay level exceeded the previous record, which was set almost fifteen years ago in 2006. The speed of increase in teachers’ salaries in 2019 was far greater than the speed of increase in the salaries of other university-educated public sector employees and very substantially greater than that in the private sector. During 2018-2019 teachers’ mean and median pay rose by more than 28%. The equivalent growth among university-educated employees in the public sector was 19.8% and in the private sector just 14,1%.\n Keywords: teachers’ pay; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Platy učitelů v roce 2019: blýská se na lepší časy?

Co do relativní úrovně učitelských platů vůči ostatním vysokoškolsky vzdělaným zaměstnancům si Česko dlouhodobě vede velmi špatně. Ještě v roce 2018 patřilo Česku poslední pořadí ze všech ekonomicky ...

Münich, Daniel; Smolka, Vladimír
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Income tax evasion: tax elasticity, welfare, and revenue
Gillman, Max
2020 - English
This paper provides a general equilibrium model of income tax evasion. As functions of the share of income reported, the paper contributes an analytic derivation of the tax elasticity of taxable income, the welfare cost of the tax, and government revenue as a percent of output. It shows how an increase in the tax rate causes the tax elasticity and welfare cost to increase in magnitude by more than with zero evasion. Keeping constant the ratio of income tax revenue to output, as shown to be consistent with certain US evidence, a rising productivity of the goods sector induces less evasion and thereby allows tax rate reduction. The paper derives conditions for a stable share of income tax revenue in output with dependence upon the tax elasticity of reporting income. Examples are provided with less and more productive economies in terms of the tax elasticity of reported income, the welfare cost of taxation and the tax revenue as a percent of output, with sensitivity analysis with respect to leisure preference and goods productivity. Discussion focuses on how the tax evasion analysis may help explain such Öscal tax policy as the postwar US income tax rate reductions with discussion of tax acts and government Öscal multipliers. Fiscal policy with tax evasion included shows how tax rate reduction induces less tax evasion, a lower welfare cost of taxation, and makes for a stable income tax share of output. Keywords: optimal evasion; tax law; welfare Fulltext is available at external website.
Income tax evasion: tax elasticity, welfare, and revenue

This paper provides a general equilibrium model of income tax evasion. As functions of the share of income reported, the paper contributes an analytic derivation of the tax elasticity of taxable ...

Gillman, Max
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

Sorting of candidates: evidence from 20,000 electoral ballots
Svitáková, Klára; Šoltés, Michal
2020 - English
Using over 20,000 electoral ballots from proportional representation elections, we document that political parties systematically sort candidates on the ballots according to their valence and intra party value. Valence, measured by education level, captures the public value of the candidates, while intra party value, measured by political donations and membership, represents the value of the candidate to the party. The patterns we observe are consistent with market mechanisms between candidates and party leaders where the party leaders benefit from the valence and intra party value of candidates and offer ballot positions (i.e. the probability of winning a seat) in exchange. We show that candidates with high valence and those who possess more intra party value are placed in higher level positions, despite the fact that candidates with more intra party value tend to receive relatively fewer votes than their counterparts with the same characteristics in the same position on the ballot. We also show that as a party expects to hold more council seats and thus has more bargaining power over candidates, the share of their candidates with higher intra party value increases. Overall, we provide strong evidence that political parties skew political representation based on a quid pro quo relationship with the candidates. Keywords: ballots; election; party Fulltext is available at external website.
Sorting of candidates: evidence from 20,000 electoral ballots

Using over 20,000 electoral ballots from proportional representation elections, we document that political parties systematically sort candidates on the ballots according to their valence and intra ...

Svitáková, Klára; Šoltés, Michal
Národohospodářský ústav, 2020

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