Number of found documents: 518
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Logos liberal democracy?
Brabec, Martin
2018 - Czech
The paper presents conceptual analyzes of liberal democracy. It shows that liberal democracy appears as harmonic association of different spheres and rights but it inside contains contradiction betwen democracy (collective decision) and liberal principle which emphasis constitutional personal rights. Misunderstanding of this distinction lead to confusion of democracy with liberal democracy. Práce ukazuje, že ačkoliv se často liberální demokracie prezentuje a obhajuje jako harmonicky skloubený celek, v její podstatě se nachází zásadní rozpor, běžně přehlížený. Tuto kontradikci nalezneme mezi principem demokratickým, který klade důraz na kolektivní rozhodování a principem liberálním, který staví na individuálních právech a osobním rozhodování. Právě neporozumění tomuto rozdílu vede ke směšování demokracie s liberální demokracií. Keywords: democracy; liberalism; political philosophy Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Logos liberal democracy?

The paper presents conceptual analyzes of liberal democracy. It shows that liberal democracy appears as harmonic association of different spheres and rights but it inside contains contradiction betwen ...

Brabec, Martin
Filosofický ústav, 2018

The Trade Contacts of Prague Burghers at the Turn of the 14th and 15th Century
Musílek, Martin
2018 - Czech
The presented text explores the trade contacts between Prague and Bern, and other cities of the Swiss confederation. Precious metal was chiefly exported from the Czech Lands to the Swiss cantons and Swabia, whether in the form of minted silver coins or raw precious metal. Trade was mediated through Nuremberg merchants. The concrete case of several Prague burghers-merchants exemplifies their status in the city, their financial backgrounds, and the mercantile and monetary contacts that were often linked up with foreign commerce houses, the ruling court milieu or the credit possibilities of the Prague Jews. Although during the Hussite Wars (1419–1434), trade with the heretical Bohemia was restricted, the Imperial and Papal trade embargo was frequently bypassed. In the course of the Hussite Wars, a new wave of exportation of Bohemian art objects abroad took place in connection with the emigration of Catholics, where these objects were either sold or deposited by the refugees “for better times”. Thus, the exportation of Bohemian art abroad did not cease even during the Hussite Wars. Předkládaný příspěvek se zaměřuje na sledování obchodních kontaktů mezi Prahou a Bernem, případně dalšími švýcarskými městy. Z českých zemí byl do švýcarských kantonů a Švábska vyvážen především drahý kov, ať už v podobě ražených stříbrných mincí nebo nezpracovaného drahého kovu. Obchodní spojení šlo prostřednictvím norimberských kupců. Na konkrétním příkladu několika pražských měšťanů-kupců je ukázáno jejich postavení ve městě, finanční zázemí, obchodní a peněžní kontakty propojené často se zahraničními obchodními domy, panovnickým dvorským prostředím nebo úvěrovými možnostmi pražských Židů. Během husitských válek (1419–1434) sice došlo k podvázání obchodu s kacířskými Čechami, císařské a papežské obchodní embargo však bylo často obcházeno. V průběhu husitských válek také docházelo v souvislosti s emigrací katolíků k nové vlně exportu českých uměleckých předmětů do zahraničí, kde byly tyto předměty buďto prodávány, nebo uprchlíky deponovány „na lepší časy“. Ani během husitských válek tedy neustal export českého umění do zahraničí. Keywords: Prague; Prague’s Old Town; Luxembourgs; urban elite; trade; Pietà Available at various institutes of the ASCR
The Trade Contacts of Prague Burghers at the Turn of the 14th and 15th Century

The presented text explores the trade contacts between Prague and Bern, and other cities of the Swiss confederation. Precious metal was chiefly exported from the Czech Lands to the Swiss cantons and ...

Musílek, Martin
Filosofický ústav, 2018

From Denunciation to Humour. Forms of Attacks by Preachers on non-Roman Catholic Believers in selected Czech Sunday Postils
Havelka, Tomáš
2017 - English
This paper deals with forms of attacks on protestants in bohemical sermons mainly in second half of 17th Century and first half of 18th Century. Although counter reformation has definitely changed confessional conditions in Bohemia after victory on White Mountain battle, protestants persisted as one of most dangerous and strange enemy of pure faith. This attitude aimed mainly to Czech speaking believers and has been persuasively repeated in a lot of deeply influential homiletic works, namely in postils (in Sunday as well as in Feast ones). The aim of paper is inspect the most important Czech Sunday postils and evaluate frequency, strategy and forms of attacks. Excerpted postils were written by Š. Berlička-Scipio, M. V. Štajer, K. Račín, Š. F. Náchodský, F. Veselý, A. Koniáš etc. Some of these postils were clearly published as „a tool“ of strict counter reformation (M. V. Štajer, A. Koniáš), thus shape of their attitudes to protestants should be interesting. Other postils were composed as a manifestation of a moderate process of the counter reformation (F. Veselý); finally, we can find authors with really peculiar way of literary form and type of persuasion as well (Š. F. Náchodský). Keywords: homiletics; Sunday Postils; Early Modern Culture; preacher Available at various institutes of the ASCR
From Denunciation to Humour. Forms of Attacks by Preachers on non-Roman Catholic Believers in selected Czech Sunday Postils

This paper deals with forms of attacks on protestants in bohemical sermons mainly in second half of 17th Century and first half of 18th Century. Although counter reformation has definitely changed ...

Havelka, Tomáš
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Knowledge is a Diamond
Punčochář, Vít
2017 - English
In the standard epistemic logic, the knowledge operator is represented as a box operator, a universal quantifier over a set of possible worlds. There is an alternative approach to the semantics of knowledge, according to which an agent a knows a proposition iff a has a reliable (e.g. sensory) evidence that supports the proposition. In this interpretation, knowledge is viewed rather as an existential, i.e. a diamond modality. In this paper, we will propose a formal semantics for substructural logics that allows to model knowledge on the basis of this intuition. The framework is strongly motivated by a similar semantics introduced by (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). However, as we will argue, our framework overcomes some unintuitive features of the semantics from (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). Most importantly, knowledge does not distribute over disjunction in our logic. Keywords: epistemic logic; substructural logic; knowledge Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Knowledge is a Diamond

In the standard epistemic logic, the knowledge operator is represented as a box operator, a universal quantifier over a set of possible worlds. There is an alternative approach to the semantics of ...

Punčochář, Vít
Filosofický ústav, 2017

A general framework for logics of questions
Punčochář, Vít
2017 - English
This paper provides an overview of basic inquisitive semantics and its generalization proposed in (Punčochář, submitted). It is shown that the generalization allows to model questions over any of a large class of non-classical logics and so avoids paradoxes of material implication and irrelevance in the logic of questions. Moreover, it is advocated that the general framework does not lose any of the characteristic features of basic inquisitive semantics that are needed for modeling of questions. Keywords: inquisitive semantics; logic of questions; substructural logics Available at various institutes of the ASCR
A general framework for logics of questions

This paper provides an overview of basic inquisitive semantics and its generalization proposed in (Punčochář, submitted). It is shown that the generalization allows to model questions over any of a ...

Punčochář, Vít
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Modern technology and historical method
Sommer, Petr
2017 - Czech
Contemporary tendency to involve new technologies and methods into the historical research head towards extraordinary enlargement possibility to work on great collections of sources, but it is constantly important to formulize clear research questions and prospective aims. Současná tendence zapojování nových technologií a metod do historické práce vede k mimořádnému rozšíření zpracovatelských možností velkých souborů pramenů, stále je však nutné formulovat jasné badatelské otázky a očekávané cíle. Keywords: methods; computer; history; sources Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Modern technology and historical method

Contemporary tendency to involve new technologies and methods into the historical research head towards extraordinary enlargement possibility to work on great collections of sources, but it is ...

Sommer, Petr
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Interpretacija Komenskogo J. Patočkoj v kontekste ego filosofii istorii
Schifferová, Věra
2017 - Russian
Patočka´s interest in Comenius was motivated by his interest in the philosophy of history. The chapter demonstrates Patočka´s concern with Comenius which resultated from Patočka´s focus on the turn from the Christian man to the man without Christiantiy as well as from his interest in the crisis of the modern man. For Patočka, the spiritual transformation, which is the main of civilisation difficulties of the modern humanity lies in replacing one´s “open soul” with a soul that´s “closed”. Patočka approaches Comenius as a thinker who´s difference from the main ideational trend of the modern age might be enormously inspirational in searching for a new spiritual path, whithout which our current humanity has no chance of leading itself out of the crisis that was brought on it by scinetific and technical civilisation; attention is drawn to the issue “pedagogy of the turn” towards the openness in the Post-European period. Interes Jana Patočki k Komenskomu byl motivirovan ego interesom k filosofii istorii. Staťja pokazyvaet, čto vnimanie Patočki k Komenskomu svjazano s ego napravlennostju k probleme pereroždenija christianskogo čeloveka v čeloveka poslechristianskogo i k probleme krizica civilizacii moderna. Soglasno Patočke, duchovnoe prevraščenie, kotoroe stalo glavnoj problemoj čelovečestva epochi moderna, eto zamena “otkrovennoj duši” “dušoj zamknutoj”. Patočka pokazyval, čto Komenskij imenno tem, čem otličaetsja ot glavnogo idejnogo napravlenija epochi moderna, možet črezvyčajno inspirirovať sovremennogo čeloveka, kotoryj iščet novuju duchovnuju orientaciju, bez kotoroj net šanca najti vychod iz krizica sovremennoj naučno-techničeskoj civilizacii; vnimanie obraščeno k “pedagogike povorota”, k otkrytosti, otkrovennosti v sovremennoj posleevropejskoj epoche. Keywords: Comenius; Patočka; crisis of the modern civilisation; Post-European Period; pedagogy of the turn; open soul Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Interpretacija Komenskogo J. Patočkoj v kontekste ego filosofii istorii

Patočka´s interest in Comenius was motivated by his interest in the philosophy of history. The chapter demonstrates Patočka´s concern with Comenius which resultated from Patočka´s focus on the turn ...

Schifferová, Věra
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Die Entwicklung der Technikbewertung in der Tschechischen Republik. Barrieren und Chancen
Machleidt, Petr; Mráček, K.
2017 - German
The paper deals with the situation of Technology Assessment in the Czech Republic. There is a well-developed theoretical basis of TA but a relatively weak TA practice. We are lacking a broad and concrete institutional lay down of TA, in particular, there is no effective link to relevant legislative activities. The concept of TA can also be viewed as a right tool for research and innovation policy in the Czech Republic. Teaching in the field of TA is also important. The positive acceptance of TA problems by students at the TU Prague shows new opportunities for the establishment of TA in the Czech Republic. The idea of “industry 4.0” is also a great challenge for TA in the Czech Republic. Der Beitrag befasst sich mit der Situation der Technikfolgenbewertung in der Tschechischen Republik. Es gibt eine gut entwickelte theoretische Grundlage für TA, aber eine relativ schwache TA-Praxis. Uns fehlt der breite und konkrete institutionelle Aufbau von TA, insbesondere gibt es keine effektive Verbindung zu relevanten legislativen Aktivitäten. Das Konzept der TA kann auch als ein richtiges Instrument für die Forschungs- und Innovationspolitik in der Tschechischen Republik angesehen werden. Unterricht im Bereich TA ist ebenfalls wichtig. Die positive Akzeptanz von TA-Problemen durch Studenten an der TU Prag zeigt neue Möglichkeiten für die Gründung von TA in der Tschechischen Republik. Die Idee von “Industrie 4.0” ist auch eine große Herausforderung für TA in der Tschechischen Republik. Keywords: Technology Assessment; TA Practice; Industry 4.0; Innovation Policy Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Die Entwicklung der Technikbewertung in der Tschechischen Republik. Barrieren und Chancen

The paper deals with the situation of Technology Assessment in the Czech Republic. There is a well-developed theoretical basis of TA but a relatively weak TA practice. We are lacking a broad and ...

Machleidt, Petr; Mráček, K.
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Substructural logics for pooling information
Sedlár, Igor; Punčochář, Vít
2017 - English
This paper puts forward a generalization of the account of pooling information – offered by standard epistemic logic – based on intersection of sets of possible worlds. Our account is based on information models for substructural logics and pooling is represented by fusion of information states. This approach yields a representation of\npooling related to structured communication within groups of agents. It is shown that the generalized account avoids some problematic features of the intersection-based approach. Our main technical result is a sound and complete axiomatization of a substructural epistemic logic with an operator expressing pooling.\n Keywords: distributed knowledge; information pooling; substrucural logics Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Substructural logics for pooling information

This paper puts forward a generalization of the account of pooling information – offered by standard epistemic logic – based on intersection of sets of possible worlds. Our account is based on ...

Sedlár, Igor; Punčochář, Vít
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Ethics and the Politics of Truth. Hito Steyerl and Michel Foucault
Bierhanzl, Jan
2017 - Czech
The documentarist turn in visual art reintroduces the question of the relationship between a work of art and truth. However, rather than the truth of the work in the sense of mimesis or authenticity, it is the politics of truth. In a double entendre: documentary forms express power relationships but being themselves a political act they may represent resistance against the power relationships. This generally political approach to truth in art falls, in our opinion, within at least two philosophical-political traditions. The first is Marx and Marxism and the question of the relationship of a work of art to social circumstances. Regarding that Hito Steyerl explicitly espouses Michel Foucault, in step two we will try to refer the issue of the relationship between a work of art and truth to the three fundamental axes of Foucault’s thought — power, knowledge and the subject. Dokumentaristický obrat ve výtvarném umění znovu klade otázku o vztahu uměleckého díla a pravdy. Nejde však o pravdu díla ve smyslu mimesis nebo autenticity, nýbrž o politiku pravdy. A to v dvojím smyslu: dokumentární formy jednak vyjadřují vládnoucí mocenské poměry, jednak díky tomu, že samy o sobě představují politické činy, mohou představovat odpor vůči těmto poměrům. Tento obecně politický přístup k pravdě umění zapadá podle nás minimálně do dvou filosoficko-politických tradic. První je Marx a marxismus a otázka vztahu díla ke společenským poměrům. Vzhledem k tomu, že Hito Steyerl se explicitně hlásí k Michelu Foucaultovi, pokusíme se, v druhém kroku, vztáhnout otázku vztahu díla a pravdy k třem základním osám Foucaultova myšlení — k moci, vědění a subjektu. Keywords: politics of truth; Foucault; documentary turn; ethics Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Ethics and the Politics of Truth. Hito Steyerl and Michel Foucault

The documentarist turn in visual art reintroduces the question of the relationship between a work of art and truth. However, rather than the truth of the work in the sense of mimesis or authenticity, ...

Bierhanzl, Jan
Filosofický ústav, 2017

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