**496**

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**From John Graunt to Adolphe Quetelet: on the Origins Of Demography**

Kalina, Jan

2023 - English
John Graunt (1620-1674) and Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) were two important personalities, who contributed to the origins of demography. As they both developed statistical techniques for the analysis of demographic data, they are important also from the point of view of history of statistics. The contributions of both Graunt and Quetelet especially to the development of mortality tables and models are recalled in this paper. Already from the 17th century, the available mortality tables were exploited for computing life annuities. Also the contribution of selected personalities inspired by Graunt are recalled here, the work of Christian Huygens, Jacob Bernoulli, or Abraham de Moivre is discussed to document that the historical development of statistics and probability theory was connected with the development of demography.
Keywords:
*history of demography; history of statistics; probability theory; moral statistics; mortality tables*
Fulltext is available at external website.
From John Graunt to Adolphe Quetelet: on the Origins Of Demography

John Graunt (1620-1674) and Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) were two important personalities, who contributed to the origins of demography. As they both developed statistical techniques for the analysis ...

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**Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment**

Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.

2023 - English
We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been chosen as a testing domain because solid validation campaign for PALM simulation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) over this quarter was documented in the past. The question of input data needed for such simulation and capability of the model to capture correctly the inlet profile and its turbulence structure provided by the wind-tunnel is discussed in the study The PALM dynamical core contains a solver for the Navier-Stokes equations. By default, the model uses the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach in which the bulk of the turbulent motions is explicitly resolved. It is well validated tool for simulations of the complex air-flow within the real urban canopy and also within its reduced scale provided by wind tunnel experiments. However the computed flow field between the testing buildings did not correspond well to the measured wind velocity in some points. Different setting of the inlet boundary condition was tested but none of them gave completely developed turbulent flow generated by vortex generators and castellated barrier wall place at the entrance of the aerodynamic section of the wind tunnel.
Keywords:
*large eddy simulation; wind tunnel; atmospheric boundary layer; PALM model; turbulence*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment

We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been ...

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**On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs**

Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.

2023 - English
Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount of shortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of betweenness centrality. In this contribution, we focus on betweenness-uniform graphs with betweenness centrality below one. We disprove a conjecture about the existence of a BUG with betweenness value α for any rational numberαfrom the interval (3/4,∞) by showing that only very few betweenness centrality values below 6/7 are attained for at least one BUG. Furthermore, among graphs with diameter at least three, there are no betweenness-uniform graphs with a betweenness centrality smaller than one. In graphs of smaller diameter, the same can be shown under a uniformity condition on the components of the complement.
Keywords:
*betweenness; graphs*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs

Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount of shortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of ...

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**Beyond the Erdős–Sós conjecture**

Davoodi, Akbar; Piguet, Diana; Řada, Hanka; Sanhueza-Matamala, N.

2023 - English
We prove an asymptotic version of a tree-containment conjecture of Klimošová, Piguet and Rozhoň [European J. Combin. 88 (2020), 103106] for graphs with quadratically many edges. The result implies that the asymptotic version of the Erdős-Sós conjecture in the setting of dense graphs is correct.
Keywords:
*conjecture; Erdős-Sós conjecture*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Beyond the Erdős–Sós conjecture

We prove an asymptotic version of a tree-containment conjecture of Klimošová, Piguet and Rozhoň [European J. Combin. 88 (2020), 103106] for graphs with quadratically many edges. The result implies ...

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**Rooting algebraic vertices of convergent sequences**

Hartman, David; Hons, T.; Nešetřil, J.

2023 - English
Structural convergence is a framework for convergence of graphs by Nešetřil and Ossona de Mendez that unifies the dense (left) graph convergence and Benjamini-Schramm convergence. They posed a problem asking whether for a given sequence of graphs (Gn) converging to a limit L and a vertex r of L it is possible to find a sequence of vertices (rn) such that L rooted at r is the limit of the graphs Gn rooted at rn. A counterexample was found by Christofides and Král’, but they showed that the statement holds for almost all vertices r of L. We offer another perspective to the original problem by considering the size of definable sets to which the root r belongs. We prove that if r is an algebraic vertex (i.e. belongs to a finite definable set), the sequence of roots (rn) always exists.
Keywords:
*rooting; algebraic vertices; convergent sequences*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Rooting algebraic vertices of convergent sequences

Structural convergence is a framework for convergence of graphs by Nešetřil and Ossona de Mendez that unifies the dense (left) graph convergence and Benjamini-Schramm convergence. They posed a problem ...

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**Statistical Method Selection Matters: Vanilla Methods in Regression May Yield Misleading Results**

Kalina, Jan

2023 - English
The primary aim of this work is to illustrate the importance of the choice of the appropriate methods for the statistical analysis of economic data. Typically, there exist several alternative versions of common statistical methods for every statistical modeling task and the most habitually used (“vanilla”) versions may yield rather misleading results in nonstandard situations. Linear regression is considered here as the most fundamental econometric model. First, the analysis of a world tourism dataset is presented, where the number of international arrivals is modeled for 140 countries of the world as a response of 14 pillars (indicators) of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index. Heteroscedasticity is clearly recognized in the dataset. However, the Aitken estimator, which would be the standard remedy in such a situation, is revealed here to be very inappropriate, regression quantiles represent a much more suitable solution here. The second illustration with artificial data reveals standard regression quantiles to be unsuitable for data contaminated by outlying values, their recently proposed robust version turns out to be much more appropriate. Both illustrations reveal that choosing suitable methods represent an important (and often difficult) part of the analysis of economic data.
Keywords:
*linear regression; assumptions; non-standard situations; robustness; diagnostics*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Statistical Method Selection Matters: Vanilla Methods in Regression May Yield Misleading Results

The primary aim of this work is to illustrate the importance of the choice of the appropriate methods for the statistical analysis of economic data. Typically, there exist several alternative versions ...

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**Fractionally Isomorphic Graphs and Graphons**

Hladký, Jan; Hng, Eng Keat

2023 - English
Fractional isomorphism is a well-studied relaxation of graph isomorphism with a very rich theory. Grebík and Rocha [Combinatorica 42, pp 365–404 (2022)] developed a concept of fractional isomorphism for graphons and proved that it enjoys an analogous theory. In particular, they proved that if two sequences of graphs that are fractionally isomorphic converge to two graphons, then these graphons are fractionally isomorphism. Answering the main question from ibid, we prove the converse of the statement above: If we have two fractionally isomorphic graphons, then there exist sequences of graphs that are fractionally isomorphic converge and converge to these respective graphons. As an easy but convenient corollary of our methods, we get that every regular graphon can be approximated by regular graphs.
Keywords:
*graph; graphon; graph fractional isomorphism*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Fractionally Isomorphic Graphs and Graphons

Fractional isomorphism is a well-studied relaxation of graph isomorphism with a very rich theory. Grebík and Rocha [Combinatorica 42, pp 365–404 (2022)] developed a concept of fractional isomorphism ...

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**Some Robust Approaches to Reducing the Complexity of Economic Data**

Kalina, Jan

2023 - English
The recent advent of complex (and potentially big) data in economics requires modern and effective tools for their analysis including tools for reducing the dimensionality (complexity) of the given data. This paper starts with recalling the importance of Big Data in economics and with characterizing the main categories of dimension reduction techniques. While there have already been numerous techniques for dimensionality reduction available, this work is interested in methods that are robust to the presence of outlying measurements (outliers) in the economic data. Particularly, methods based on implicit weighting assigned to individual observations are developed in this paper. As the main contribution, this paper proposes three novel robust methods of dimension reduction. One method is a dimension reduction within a robust regularized linear regression, namely a sparse version of the least weighted squares estimator. The other two methods are robust versions of feature extraction methods popular in econometrics: robust principal component analysis and robust factor analysis.
Keywords:
*dimensionality reduction; Big Data; variable selection; robustness; sparsity*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Some Robust Approaches to Reducing the Complexity of Economic Data

The recent advent of complex (and potentially big) data in economics requires modern and effective tools for their analysis including tools for reducing the dimensionality (complexity) of the given ...

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**The 2022 Election in the United States: Reliability of a Linear Regression Model**

Kalina, Jan; Vidnerová, Petra; Večeř, M.

2023 - English
In this paper, the 2022 United States election to the House of Representatives is analyzed by means of a linear regression model. After the election process is explained, the popular vote is modeled as a response of 8 predictors (demographic characteristics) on the state-wide level. The main focus is paid to verifying the reliability of two obtained regression models, namely the full model with all predictors and the most relevant submodel found by hypothesis testing (with 4 relevant predictors). Individual topics related to assessing reliability that are used in this study include confidence intervals for predictions, multicollinearity, and also outlier detection. While the predictions in the submodel that includes only relevant predictors are very similar to those in the full model, it turns out that the submodel has better reliability properties compared to the full model, especially in terms of narrower confidence intervals for the values of the popular vote.
Keywords:
*elections results; electoral demography; linear regression; reliability; variability*
Fulltext is available at external website.
The 2022 Election in the United States: Reliability of a Linear Regression Model

In this paper, the 2022 United States election to the House of Representatives is analyzed by means of a linear regression model. After the election process is explained, the popular vote is modeled ...

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**Permutation Flip Processes**

Hladký, Jan; Řada, Hanka

2023 - English
We introduce a broad class of stochastic processes on permutations which we call flip processes. A single step in these processes is given by a local change on a randomly chosen fixed-sized tuple of the domain. We use the theory of permutons to describe the typical evolution of any such flip process started from any initial permutation. More specifically, we construct trajectories in the space of permutons with the property that if a finite permutation is close to a permuton then for any time it stays with high probability is close to this predicted trajectory. This view allows to study various questions inspired by dynamical systems.
Keywords:
*permutation; permuton; sorting dynamics; flip process*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Permutation Flip Processes

We introduce a broad class of stochastic processes on permutations which we call flip processes. A single step in these processes is given by a local change on a randomly chosen fixed-sized tuple of ...

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