**11513**

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**Charakterizace Božanského pískovce: pilotní lomové testy**

Kumpová, I.; Rozsypalová, I.; Vavro, Leona; Vavro, Martin; Keršner, Z.

2020 - Czech
Cíl příspěvku představuje charakterizacipískovce zlomu Božanov u Broumova,Česká republika,pomocí pilotních lomových testů. Pět zkušebních těles z jádrových vývrtůnominálního průměru 50mm a délek 100 a125mm bylo před testy opatřeno koncentrátorem napětí ve tvaru šípového vrubu a zatěžováno spožadavkem konstantního přírůstku posunu vkonfiguraci tříbodového ohybu lisemLabTest 6.250 vlaboratoři Ústavu stavebního zkušebnictví FAST VUT vBrně. Snímaných diagramů síla–posun bylo po jejich korekci využito kvyčíslení základních lomově-mechanických parametrůstudovaného pískovce: statického modulu pružnosti, lomové houževnatosti, houževnatostia specifické lomové energie. The aim of this paper is a characterization ofsandstone from Božanov quarry near Broumov, Czech Republic,by means of the pilot fracture tests. Five drill-core test specimens withnominal diameter of 50mm and lengths of 100 and 125mmwere provided by an initial chevron type notch. Specimens were loaded in the configuration of the three-point bending as a displacement driven experimentusing LabTest 6.250 equipment in the laboratory of the Institute of Building Testing, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The load versus displacement diagrams were used to quantify the basic mechanical fracture parameters of the studied sandstone: modulus of elasticity, fracture toughness, toughness, and specific fracture energy.
Keywords:
*Božanov sandstone; drill-core specimen; chevron notch; fracture test; load–displacement diagram*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Charakterizace Božanského pískovce: pilotní lomové testy

Cíl příspěvku představuje charakterizacipískovce zlomu Božanov u Broumova,Česká republika,pomocí pilotních lomových testů. Pět zkušebních těles z jádrových vývrtůnominálního průměru ...

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**Random response of a dynamic system under polynomial of a white noise**

Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

2020 - English
Many types of external additive random excitation of dynamic systems admit to be modelled as a combination of powers of a Gaussian noise. Such a type of excitation produces a non-Gaussian response even if the dynamic system is linear and the excitation is additive only. Although the excitation as a whole is non-Gaussian, the problem can be transformed into the form of a linear system with an additive and multiplicative white noise excitation which _nally produces a non-Gaussian response. The general method of transformation, the respective FPK equation, basic stochastic moments of the response, and a demonstrative example are discussed.
Keywords:
*non-Gaussian excitation; nonlinear filtering; Kronecker algebra*
Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Random response of a dynamic system under polynomial of a white noise

Many types of external additive random excitation of dynamic systems admit to be modelled as a combination of powers of a Gaussian noise. Such a type of excitation produces a non-Gaussian response ...

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**Large Scale Motions in Turbulent Flows**

Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Procházka, Pavel P.

2019 - English
Quadrant analysis based on the Reynolds decomposition was performed on the data from turbulent boundary layer flows above variously rough surfaces. An estimation of a convective velocity for events significant in terms of momentum flux, and the statistics of a length and amplitude of the individual events, together with their spectral analysis, was performed. Based on the analyses, we were able to detect a few individual sweep and ejection events with a length longer than 6δ, which could be considered as very large scale motions (VLSM). We also identified number of events with a longitudinal dimension equal to approximately 3δ labelled as large scale motions (LSM). The analyses were executed for various Reynolds numbers. The number of detected structures increases with the momentum of the flow.
Keywords:
*wind tunnel; large scale motion; quadrant analysis*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Large Scale Motions in Turbulent Flows

Quadrant analysis based on the Reynolds decomposition was performed on the data from turbulent boundary layer flows above variously rough surfaces. An estimation of a convective velocity for events ...

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**Assessing Quality of Boundary Layer Flows With the Diagnostic Plot**

Jurčáková, Klára; Procházka, Pavel P.; Kellnerová, Radka

2019 - English
We experimentally investigated turbulent boundary layers over 4 rough surfaces and 1 smooth surface by particle image velocimetry for a range a free stream velocities. The obtained mean velocity vertical profiles were universally scaled by roughness length z₀ and friction velocity u*, but both parameters have to be obtained from the fit of the logarithmic or composite velocity pro le to the experimental data. Diagnostic plot, which relates turbulence intensity with the mean velocity showed good collapse of different free stream velocities for each surface. It became fully universal in its modified version when the roughness function was taken into an account. We found that turbulence intensities over our surfaces are higher than any published one and that they dependent on roughness length z₀*.
Keywords:
*wind tunnel; turbulence intensity; rough-wall; friction velocity*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Assessing Quality of Boundary Layer Flows With the Diagnostic Plot

We experimentally investigated turbulent boundary layers over 4 rough surfaces and 1 smooth surface by particle image velocimetry for a range a free stream velocities. The obtained mean velocity ...

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**Characterization of fine-grained montmorillonite fractions suitable for composite preparation**

Valovičová, Věra; Vaculíková, Lenka; Plevová, Eva; Dolinská, S.; Znamenáčková, I.; Danková, Z.

2019 - English
The aim of this experimental study was to characterize a fine-grained fraction of montmorillonites (SAz-2, STx-1, SWy-2 and Kunipia-F). It was investigated in order to provide more precise information of used montmorillonites than could be obtained by analysis of the unfractioned montmorillonites. At first, the fine fraction of montmorillonites were prepared by sedimentation and activation by means of Na2CO3. The prepared clay materials were characterized by the X-ray diffraction analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal behaviour of the studied samples was determinated according to the characteristic temperatures obtained from TG/DTA curves. The temperatures of dehydratation and dehydroxylation were evaluated and kinetic parameters were also calculated. The porosity and surface properties of the studied samples were gained by the nitrogen adsorption measurements. The obtained results confirmed that the fine fraction of montmorillonites could be a suitable material for subsequent preparation of composites with enhanced sorption properties, especially montmorillonite/MnO2 composite.
Keywords:
*montmorillonite; activation; characterization; composites*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Characterization of fine-grained montmorillonite fractions suitable for composite preparation

The aim of this experimental study was to characterize a fine-grained fraction of montmorillonites (SAz-2, STx-1, SWy-2 and Kunipia-F). It was investigated in order to provide more precise information ...

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**Note on the problem of compressible non-Newtonian fluids**

Caggio, M.; Nečasová, Šárka

2019 - English
The aim of the paper is to consider the compressible non-Newtonian fluids of power law type when the viscosity coeffcients depend not only on invariants of velocity field but also on the density. We introduce approximation scheme using model of multipolar fluids. After then passing with higher viscosity to zero we get the measure valued solution of the problem.
Keywords:
*non-Newtonian fluid; compressible fluid; multipolar fluid; measure-valued solution*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Note on the problem of compressible non-Newtonian fluids

The aim of the paper is to consider the compressible non-Newtonian fluids of power law type when the viscosity coeffcients depend not only on invariants of velocity field but also on the density. We ...

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**Three-dimensionally ordered micromesoporous carbon as adsorbent for CO2 capture**

Vorokhta, Maryna; Řimnáčová, Daniela; Pilař, Radim

2019 - English
In this work, ordered three-dimensionally micromesoporous carbon composed of large spherical mesopores 13 nm in diameter and small micropores with a mean micropore width of 1.46 nm, connecting the main spheres, was synthesized and investigated for CO2 capture ability at temperatures of 25°C, 35°C and 50°C, and at pressures up to 6.5 MPa. Because of the big pore volume occupying 3.62 cm3/g, composed of mesopores and micropores, the carbon sample showed very high adsorption capacity at high pressures. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 24.03 mmol/g was obtained at 25°C and at 5.5 MPa. As the temperature increased, the CO2 adsorption capacity decreased to 13.34 mmol/g at 50°C and at 6.5 MPa. The Freundlich fittings of the measured adsorption isotherms at pressures up to 2 MPa showed very high correlation coefficients. The estimated isosteric heats of adsorption in the range of 5.62-6.90 kJ/mol indicated a physical adsorption process, and suggested a stronger interaction between CO2 molecules than between CO2 molecules and the surface of the carbon sample.
Keywords:
*3DOmm carbon; CO2 adsorption; Freundlich fit; Isosteric heat*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Three-dimensionally ordered micromesoporous carbon as adsorbent for CO2 capture

In this work, ordered three-dimensionally micromesoporous carbon composed of large spherical mesopores 13 nm in diameter and small micropores with a mean micropore width of 1.46 nm, connecting the ...

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**Lexicalized Syntactic Analysis by Restarting Automata**

Mráz, F.; Otto, F.; Pardubská, D.; Plátek, Martin

2019 - English
We study h-lexicalized two-way restarting automata that can rewrite at most i times per cycle for some i ≥ 1 (hRLWW(i)-automata). This model is considered useful for the study of lexical (syntactic) disambiguation, which is a concept from linguistics. It is based on certain reduction patterns. We study lexical disambiguation through the formal notion of h-lexicalized syntactic analysis (hLSA). The hLSA is composed of a basic language and the corresponding h-proper language, which is obtained from the basic language by mapping all basic symbols to input symbols. We stress the sensitivity of hLSA by hRLWW(i)-automata to the size of their windows, the number of possible rewrites per cycle, and the degree of (non-)monotonicity. We introduce the concepts of contextually transparent languages (CTL) and contextually transparent lexicalized analyses based on very special reduction patterns, and we present two-dimensional hierarchies of their subclasses based on the size of windows and on the degree of synchronization. The bottoms of these hierarchies correspond to the context-free languages. CTL creates a proper subclass of context-sensitive languages with syntactically natural properties.
Keywords:
*Restarting automaton; h-lexicalization; lexical disambiguation*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Lexicalized Syntactic Analysis by Restarting Automata

We study h-lexicalized two-way restarting automata that can rewrite at most i times per cycle for some i ≥ 1 (hRLWW(i)-automata). This model is considered useful for the study of lexical (syntactic) ...

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**Second Order Optimality in Markov and Semi-Markov Decision Processes**

Sladký, Karel

2019 - English
Semi-Markov decision processes can be considered as an extension of discrete- and continuous-time Markov reward models. Unfortunately, traditional optimality criteria as long-run average reward per time may be quite insufficient to characterize the problem from the point of a decision maker. To this end it may be preferable if not necessary to select more sophisticated criteria that also reflect variability-risk features of the problem. Perhaps the best known approaches stem from the classical work of Markowitz on mean-variance selection rules, i.e. we optimize the weighted sum of average or total reward and its variance. Such approach has been already studied for very special classes of semi-Markov decision processes, in particular, for Markov decision processes in discrete - and continuous-time setting. In this note these approaches are summarized and possible extensions to the wider class of semi-Markov decision processes is discussed. Attention is mostly restricted to uncontrolled models in which the chain is aperiodic and contains a single class of recurrent states. Considering finite time horizons, explicit formulas for the first and second moments of total reward as well as for the corresponding variance are produced.
Keywords:
*semi-Markov processes with rewards; discrete and continuous-time Markov reward chains; risk-sensitive optimality; average reward and variance over time*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Second Order Optimality in Markov and Semi-Markov Decision Processes

Semi-Markov decision processes can be considered as an extension of discrete- and continuous-time Markov reward models. Unfortunately, traditional optimality criteria as long-run average reward per ...

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**Mean-Risk Optimization Problem via Scalarization, Stochastic Dominance, Empirical Estimates**

Kaňková, Vlasta

2019 - English
Many economic and financial situations depend simultaneously on a random element and on a decision parameter. Mostly it is possible to influence the above mentioned situation by an optimization model depending on a probability measure. We focus on a special case of one-stage two objective stochastic “Mean-Risk problem”. Of course to determine optimal solution simultaneously with respect to the both criteria is mostly impossible. Consequently, it is necessary to employ some approaches. A few of them are known (from the literature), however two of them are very important: first of them is based on a scalarizing technique and the second one is based on the stochastic dominance. First approach has been suggested (in special case) by Markowitz, the second approach is based on the second order stochastic dominance. The last approach corresponds (under some assumptions) to partial order in the set of the utility functions.\nThe aim of the contribution is to deal with the both main above mentioned approaches. First, we repeat their properties and further we try to suggest possibility to improve the both values simultaneously with respect to the both criteria. However, we focus mainly on the case when probability characteristics has to be estimated on the data base.
Keywords:
*Two-objective stochastic optimization problems; scalarization; stochastic dominance; empirical estimates*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Mean-Risk Optimization Problem via Scalarization, Stochastic Dominance, Empirical Estimates

Many economic and financial situations depend simultaneously on a random element and on a decision parameter. Mostly it is possible to influence the above mentioned situation by an optimization model ...

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