Number of found documents: 628
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Does minimum wage affect workplace safety?
Hradil, Vít
2018 - English
Empirical evidence on the employment effects of minimum wage legislation suggests the possibility that firms react to increases in low-skilled labor costs driven by minimum wages\nby reducing investments in non-wage job aspects, which can mitigate the need for layoffs. Such adjustments may involve the worsening of workplace safety. To evaluate the hypothesis that increases in minimum wages result in a higher incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses, I use employer-level data from the United States and variation in state minimum wages during 1996-2013. The results suggest that states which increase their minimum wage experience an increase in the incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses. The effect appears stronger in industries that employ large numbers of low-wage workers, and those where the workforce is intensively exposed to health risks. Keywords: minimum wage; job safety; occupational injuries and illnesses Fulltext is available at external website.
Does minimum wage affect workplace safety?

Empirical evidence on the employment effects of minimum wage legislation suggests the possibility that firms react to increases in low-skilled labor costs driven by minimum wages\nby reducing ...

Hradil, Vít
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

The low-skilled in the Czech Republic
Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
2018 - English
This study provides evidence on the characteristics, labor market conditions, and labor market\noutcomes of the low-skilled in the Czech Republic. It considers the most relevant policies to\nensure the long-term inclusion of the low-skilled in the labor market. We use the standard\ndefinition of the low-skilled as those individuals with primary or lower-secondary education. Keywords: labor market conditions; labor market outcomes; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
The low-skilled in the Czech Republic

This study provides evidence on the characteristics, labor market conditions, and labor market\noutcomes of the low-skilled in the Czech Republic. It considers the most relevant policies to\nensure ...

Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Vyšší platy učitelů: sliby, sliby, sliby
Münich, Daniel; Smolka, V.
2018 - Czech
Mezinárodní srovnání ukazují, že platy českých učitelů, v relaci k ostatním vysokoškolsky vzdělaným pracovníkům, patří dlouhodobě k nejnižším mezi ekonomicky nejvyspělejšími zeměmi. Podle posledních publikovaných mezinárodních srovnání z roku 2015 tento podíl v České republice dosahoval 56 %, zatímco průměr zemí OECD byl 83 %. International comparisons show that Czech teachers’ pay, in relation to other tertiary educated workers, has long been among the lowest across the most economically developed countries. Based on the latest international comparisons published, from 2015, Czech teachers earned 56% of what other tertiary educated workers were earning, whereas the average across OECD countries was 83%. Keywords: teachers’ salaries; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Vyšší platy učitelů: sliby, sliby, sliby

Mezinárodní srovnání ukazují, že platy českých učitelů, v relaci k ostatním vysokoškolsky vzdělaným pracovníkům, patří dlouhodobě k nejnižším mezi ekonomicky nejvyspělejšími zeměmi. Podle posledních ...

Münich, Daniel; Smolka, V.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
2018 - English
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results. Keywords: digitalization; entrepreneurship; technology dissemination Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions

Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the ...

Pleticha, Petr
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Formation of market beliefs in the oil market
Anatolyev, Stanislav; Seleznev, S.; Selezneva, Veronika
2018 - English
We characterize formation of market beliefs in the oil market by providing a complete characterization of the market reaction to oil inventory surprises. We utilize the unique sequential nature of inventory announcements to identify inventory shocks. We estimate an AR-ARCH-MEM model of the joint dynamics of returns, return volatilities and trading volumes around the announcements using high frequency data on oil futures contracts. Our model (i) handles illiquidity of long maturity contracts by accounting for trading inactivity, (ii) captures time varying trading intensity, and (iii) allows for structural changes in the dynamics and responses to news over time. We show (i) uniform formation of expectations across oil futures contracts with different maturities, (ii) a strong negative relation between inventories surprises and re-turns, (iii) no effect on the term premium, which suggests that inventory shocks are always considered to be permanent, and (iv) di_erentiation in the reaction of volume by maturity. We demonstrate how our results can be used to test theories of oil price determination and contribute to the debate on the recent oil glut. Keywords: oil market; ultra high frequency data; trading intensity Fulltext is available at external website.
Formation of market beliefs in the oil market

We characterize formation of market beliefs in the oil market by providing a complete characterization of the market reaction to oil inventory surprises. We utilize the unique sequential nature of ...

Anatolyev, Stanislav; Seleznev, S.; Selezneva, Veronika
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Effects of poverty on impatience: preferences or inattention?
Bartoš, V.; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Levely, I.
2018 - English
We study two psychological channels how poverty may increase impatient behavior – an effect\non time preference and reduced attention. We measured discount rates among Ugandan farmers\nwho made decisions about when to enjoy entertainment instead of working. We find that\nexperimentally induced thoughts about poverty-related problems increase the preference to\nconsume entertainment early and delay work. The effect is equivalent to a 27 p.p. increase in\nthe intertemporal rate of substitution. Using monitoring tools similar to eye tracking, a novel\nfeature for this subject pool, we show this effect is not due to a lower ability to sustain attention. Keywords: poverty; scarcity; time discounting Fulltext is available at external website.
Effects of poverty on impatience: preferences or inattention?

We study two psychological channels how poverty may increase impatient behavior – an effect\non time preference and reduced attention. We measured discount rates among Ugandan farmers\nwho made ...

Bartoš, V.; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Levely, I.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Caught in the cycle: economic conditions at enrollment and labor market outcomes of college graduates
Bičáková, Alena; Cortes, G. M.; Mazza, J.
2018 - English
We find robust evidence that cohorts of graduates who enter college during worse economic\ntimes earn higher average wages than those who enter during better times. This difference is\nnot explained by differences in economic conditions at the time of college graduation, changes\nin _eld of study composition, or changes in selection into occupations or industries. Cohorts\nwho start college in bad times are not more positively selected based on their high-school\noutcomes, but they graduate with higher college grades, and earn higher wages conditional on\ntheir grades. Our results suggest that these cohorts exert more effort during their studies. Keywords: business cycle; higher education; cohort effects Fulltext is available at external website.
Caught in the cycle: economic conditions at enrollment and labor market outcomes of college graduates

We find robust evidence that cohorts of graduates who enter college during worse economic\ntimes earn higher average wages than those who enter during better times. This difference is\nnot explained ...

Bičáková, Alena; Cortes, G. M.; Mazza, J.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Obezita v České republice: mezinárodní srovnání s využitím dat z projektu SHARE
Pertold, Filip; Šatava, Jiří
2018 - Czech
Světová zdravotnická organizace hovoří o obezitě jako o jedné z největších výzev pro veřejné\nzdravotnictví 21. století. Na základě dat z projeku SHARE ukazujeme, že Čeští senioři ve věku\n50–70 let mají v mezinárodním srovnání velmi vysokou míru obezity (BMI > 29,99). V roce 2015 trpělo přibližně 35 % starších mužů v České republice (ČR) obezitou, to je téměř dvakrát vyšší hodnota než v Itálii a Španělsku a hodnota více než o 50 % vyšší než v zemích západní Evropy (cca 23 %). The World Health Organization considers obesity to be one of the greatest challenges for\npublic health in the 21st century. On the basis of data from SHARE, we show that Czechs aged\n50-70 years have a high rate of obesity (BMI > 29,99) in comparison with other countries.\nIn 2015 around 35 % of older men in the Czech Republic suffered from obesity, that is almost\ntwice as high as the rate in Italy or Switzerland and more than 50 % higher than the rate\nin Western European countries (c. 23 %). Keywords: obesity; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Obezita v České republice: mezinárodní srovnání s využitím dat z projektu SHARE

Světová zdravotnická organizace hovoří o obezitě jako o jedné z největších výzev pro veřejné\nzdravotnictví 21. století. Na základě dat z projeku SHARE ukazujeme, že Čeští senioři ve věku\n50–70 let ...

Pertold, Filip; Šatava, Jiří
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
2018 - English
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results. Keywords: digitalization; entrepreneurship; technology dissemination Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions

Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the ...

Pleticha, Petr
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Bayesian persuasion with costly information acquisition
Matysková, Ludmila
2018 - English
A sender who chooses a signal to reveal to a receiver can often influence the receiver’s subsequent actions. Is persuasion more difficult when the receiver has her own sources of information? Does the receiver benefit from having additional information sources? We consider a Bayesian persuasion model extended to a receiver’s endogenous acquisition of information under an entropy-based cost commonly used in rational inattention. A sender’s optimal signal can be computed from standard Bayesian persuasion subject to an additional constraint: the receiver never gathers her own costly information. We further determine a finite set of the sender’s signals satisfying the additional constraint in which some optimal signal must be contained. The set is characterized by linear conditions using the receiver’s utility and information cost parameters. The new method is also applicable to a standard Bayesian persuasion model and can simplify, sometimes dramatically, the search for a sender’s optimal signal (as opposed to a standard concavification technique used to solve these models). We show that the ‘threat’ of additional learning weakly decreases the sender’s expected equilibrium payoff. However, the outcome can be worse not only for the sender, but also for the receiver.\n \n Keywords: Bayesian persuasion; rational inattention; costly information acquisition Fulltext is available at external website.
Bayesian persuasion with costly information acquisition

A sender who chooses a signal to reveal to a receiver can often influence the receiver’s subsequent actions. Is persuasion more difficult when the receiver has her own sources of information? Does the ...

Matysková, Ludmila
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

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