Number of found documents: 789
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The scalar-valued score functions of continuous probability distribution
Fabián, Zdeněk
2019 - English
In this report we give theoretical basis of probability theory of continuous random variables based on scalar valued score functions. We maintain consistently the following point of view: It is not the observed value, which is to be used in probabilistic and statistical considerations, but its 'treated form', the value of the scalar-valued score function of distribution of the assumed model. Actually, the opinion that an observed value of random variable should be 'treated' with respect to underlying model is one of main ideas of the inference based on likelihood in classical statistics. However, a vector nature of Fisher score functions of classical statistics does not enable a consistent use of this point of view. Instead, various inference functions are suggested and used in solutions of various statistical problems. Inference function of this report is the scalar-valued score function of distribution. Keywords: Shortcomings of probability theory; Scalar-valued score functions; Characteristics of continous random variables; Parametric estimation; Transformed distributions; Skew-symmetric distributions Available at various institutes of the ASCR
The scalar-valued score functions of continuous probability distribution

In this report we give theoretical basis of probability theory of continuous random variables based on scalar valued score functions. We maintain consistently the following point of view: It is not ...

Fabián, Zdeněk
Ústav informatiky, 2019

A Logical Characteristic of Read-Once Branching Programs
Žák, Stanislav
2019 - English
We present a mathematical model of the intuitive notions such as the knowledge or the information arising at different stages of computations on branching programs (b.p.). The model has two appropriate properties: i) The ”knowledge” arising at a stage of computation in question is derivable from the ”knowledge” arising at the previous stage according to the rules of the model and according to the local arrangement of the b.p. ii) The model confirms the intuitively well-known fact that the knowledge arising at a node of a computation depends not only on it but in some cases also on a ”mystery” information. (I. e. different computations reaching the same node may have different knowledge(s) arisen at it.) We prove that with respect to our model no such information exists in read-once b.p.‘s but on the other hand in b. p.‘s which are not read-once such information must be present. The read-once property forms a frontier. More concretely, we may see the instances of our models as a systems S = (U,D) where U is a universe of knowledge and D are derivation rules. We say that a b.p. P is compatible with a system S iff along each computation in P S derives F (false) or T (true) at the end correctly according to the label of the reached sink. This key notion modifies the classic paradigm which takes the computational complexity with respect to different classes of restricted b.p.‘s (e.g. read-once b.p.‘s, k-b.p.‘s, b.p.‘s computing in limited time etc.). Now, the restriction is defined by a subset of systems and only these programs are taken into account which are compatible with at least one of the chosen systems. Further we understand the sets U of knowledge(s) as a sets of admissible logical formulae. It is clear that more rich sets U‘s imply the large restrictions on b.p.‘s and consequently the smaller complexities of Boolean functions are detected. More rich logical equipment implies stronger computational effectiveness. Another question arises: given a set of Boolean functions (e.g. codes of some graphs) what logical equipment is optimal from the point of complexity? Keywords: branching programs; computational complexity; logic Available in digital repository of the ASCR
A Logical Characteristic of Read-Once Branching Programs

We present a mathematical model of the intuitive notions such as the knowledge or the information arising at different stages of computations on branching programs (b.p.). The model has two ...

Žák, Stanislav
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Absolute Value Mapping
Rohn, Jiří
2019 - English
We prove a necessary and sufficient condition for an absolute value mapping to be bijective. This result simultaneously gives a characterization of unique solvability of an absolute value equation for each right-hand side. Keywords: absolute value mapping; bijectivity; interval matrix; regularity; absolute value equation; unique solvability Available in a digital repository NRGL
Absolute Value Mapping

We prove a necessary and sufficient condition for an absolute value mapping to be bijective. This result simultaneously gives a characterization of unique solvability of an absolute value equation for ...

Rohn, Jiří
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Rozhodování za neurčitosti: Pohled matematika na plánované hospodářství
Rohn, Jiří
2019 - Czech
V práci jsou popsány hlavní výsledky neoficiálního ekonomicko-matematického výzkumu provedeného v letech 1973-1980 pracovníky Ekonomicko-matematické laboratoře Ekonomického ústavu ČSAV a MFF (J. Bouška, J. Rohn a B. Kalendovský). Keywords: Leontěvův model; intervalová data; zaručené řešení; neexistence; matice 28 x 28 Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Rozhodování za neurčitosti: Pohled matematika na plánované hospodářství

V práci jsou popsány hlavní výsledky neoficiálního ekonomicko-matematického výzkumu provedeného v letech 1973-1980 pracovníky Ekonomicko-matematické laboratoře Ekonomického ústavu ČSAV a MFF (J. ...

Rohn, Jiří
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Overdetermined Absolute Value Equations
Rohn, Jiří
2019 - English
We consider existence, uniqueness and computation of a solution of an absolute value equation in the overdetermined case. Keywords: absolute value equations; overdetermined system Available in a digital repository NRGL
Overdetermined Absolute Value Equations

We consider existence, uniqueness and computation of a solution of an absolute value equation in the overdetermined case.

Rohn, Jiří
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Generalization of a Theorem on Eigenvalues of Symmetric Matrices
Rohn, Jiří
2019 - English
We prove that the product of a symmetric positive semide nite matrix and a symmetric matrix has all eigenvalues real. Keywords: symmetric matrix; positive semide nite matrix; real spectrum Available in a digital repository NRGL
Generalization of a Theorem on Eigenvalues of Symmetric Matrices

We prove that the product of a symmetric positive semide nite matrix and a symmetric matrix has all eigenvalues real.

Rohn, Jiří
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Hybrid Methods for Nonlinear Least Squares Problems
Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan
2019 - English
This contribution contains a description and analysis of effective methods for minimization of the nonlinear least squares function F(x) = (1=2)fT (x)f(x), where x ∈ Rn and f ∈ Rm, together with extensive computational tests and comparisons of the introduced methods. All hybrid methods are described in detail and their global convergence is proved in a unified way. Some proofs concerning trust region methods, which are difficult to find in the literature, are also added. In particular, the report contains an analysis of a new simple hybrid method with Jacobian corrections (Section 8) and an investigation of the simple hybrid method for sparse least squares problems proposed previously in [33] (Section 14). Keywords: numerical optimization; nonlinear least squares; trust region methods; hybrid methods; sparse problems; partially separable problems; numerical experiments Available in a digital repository NRGL
Hybrid Methods for Nonlinear Least Squares Problems

This contribution contains a description and analysis of effective methods for minimization of the nonlinear least squares function F(x) = (1=2)fT (x)f(x), where x ∈ Rn and f ∈ Rm, together with ...

Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Does a Singular Symmetric Interval Matrix Contain a Symmetric Singular Matrix?
Rohn, Jiří
2019 - English
We consider the conjecture formulated in the title concerning existence of a symmetric singular matrix in a singular symmetric interval matrix. We show by means of a counterexample that it is generally not valid, and we prove that it becomes true under an additional assumption of positive semide niteness of the midpoint matrix. The proof is constructive. Keywords: symmetric interval matrix; singularity; positive semide niteness Available in a digital repository NRGL
Does a Singular Symmetric Interval Matrix Contain a Symmetric Singular Matrix?

We consider the conjecture formulated in the title concerning existence of a symmetric singular matrix in a singular symmetric interval matrix. We show by means of a counterexample that it is ...

Rohn, Jiří
Ústav informatiky, 2019

Transforming hierarchical images to program expressions using deep networks
Křen, Tomáš
2018 - English
We present a technique describing how to effectively train a neural network given an image to produce a formal description of the given image. The basic motivation of the proposed technique is an intention to design a new tool for automatic program synthesis capable of transforming sensory data (in our case static image, but generally a phenotype) to a formal code expression (i.e. syntactic tree of a program), such that the code (from evolutionary perspective a genotype) evaluates to a value that is similar to the input data, ideally identical. Our approach is partially based on our technique for generating program expressions in the context of typed functional genetic programming. We present promising results evaluating a simple image description language achieved with a deep network combining convolution encoder of images and recurrent decoder for generating program expressions in the sequential prefix notation and propose possible future applications. Keywords: deep networks; automatic program synthesis; image processing Available in a digital repository NRGL
Transforming hierarchical images to program expressions using deep networks

We present a technique describing how to effectively train a neural network given an image to produce a formal description of the given image. The basic motivation of the proposed technique is an ...

Křen, Tomáš
Ústav informatiky, 2018

Detailní simulace proudění, teplot a znečištění vzduchu pro oblast Praha-Dejvice
Resler, Jaroslav; Geletič, Jan; Krč, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof
2018 - Czech
Simulations of Prague quarter Dejvice were performed with newly developed urban climate model PALM-4U based on LES model PALM. The modelling domain has extent 1000 x 800 m and the resolution of the model was 2 m. Two 24 hours episodes were simulated. The summer episode was intended to assess mainly the UHI effects and the winter episode to assess mainly the air quality issues. Two variants were simulated - the current real situation and the scenario with considered new buildings in the area of Victory Square (Vítězné náměstí). Some comments of the ressults are appended at the end of the report. Keywords: PALM; LES; Urban Heat Island; Urban Air Quality; scenarios assessment Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Detailní simulace proudění, teplot a znečištění vzduchu pro oblast Praha-Dejvice

Simulations of Prague quarter Dejvice were performed with newly developed urban climate model PALM-4U based on LES model PALM. The modelling domain has extent 1000 x 800 m and the resolution of the ...

Resler, Jaroslav; Geletič, Jan; Krč, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof
Ústav informatiky, 2018

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