Number of found documents: 995
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Francis Dvorník - Scholar and His Work. Papers read at the international symposium held on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of his demise.
Vavřínek, Vladimír; Melichar, Petra; Čechová, Martina
2018 - English
The volume contains the presentations from the international conference Francis Dvorník - Scholar and His Work and the last unfinished work of the scholar, The Conflict between Sacerdotium and Imperium in the Middle Ages. East and West. Keywords: Dvorník, Francis; life; work Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Francis Dvorník - Scholar and His Work. Papers read at the international symposium held on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of his demise.

The volume contains the presentations from the international conference Francis Dvorník - Scholar and His Work and the last unfinished work of the scholar, The Conflict between Sacerdotium and ...

Vavřínek, Vladimír; Melichar, Petra; Čechová, Martina
Slovanský ústav, 2018

Psychological testing of minorities: Inspiration from methodology of cross-cultural psychology
Čeněk, J.; Urbánek, Tomáš
2018 - English
This presentation is focused on the problematics of psychological testing and the adaptation of psychological methods in Czech Republic. The emphasis is placed on the testing of Czech minorities. The goal of the presentation is to summarize the current state of psychological testing in Czech Republic, to indicate certain limits in the quality of Czech psychological tests, and to propose steps that could be used to improve the state. Cross-cultural psychology offers a set of principles and methods, both of qualitative and quantitative nature, which can be used not only for the evaluation of the existing psychological tests with respect to the tested populations (e. g. minorities), but also for the successful creation or adaptation of new tests. Keywords: adaptation of psychological methods; cultural bias; emic/etic; equivalence Fulltext is available at external website.
Psychological testing of minorities: Inspiration from methodology of cross-cultural psychology

This presentation is focused on the problematics of psychological testing and the adaptation of psychological methods in Czech Republic. The emphasis is placed on the testing of Czech minorities. The ...

Čeněk, J.; Urbánek, Tomáš
Psychologický ústav, 2018

Does minimum wage affect workplace safety?
Hradil, Vít
2018 - English
Empirical evidence on the employment effects of minimum wage legislation suggests the possibility that firms react to increases in low-skilled labor costs driven by minimum wages\nby reducing investments in non-wage job aspects, which can mitigate the need for layoffs. Such adjustments may involve the worsening of workplace safety. To evaluate the hypothesis that increases in minimum wages result in a higher incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses, I use employer-level data from the United States and variation in state minimum wages during 1996-2013. The results suggest that states which increase their minimum wage experience an increase in the incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses. The effect appears stronger in industries that employ large numbers of low-wage workers, and those where the workforce is intensively exposed to health risks. Keywords: minimum wage; job safety; occupational injuries and illnesses Fulltext is available at external website.
Does minimum wage affect workplace safety?

Empirical evidence on the employment effects of minimum wage legislation suggests the possibility that firms react to increases in low-skilled labor costs driven by minimum wages\nby reducing ...

Hradil, Vít
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Effects of poverty on impatience: preferences or inattention?
Bartoš, V.; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Levely, I.
2018 - English
We study two psychological channels how poverty may increase impatient behavior – an effect\non time preference and reduced attention. We measured discount rates among Ugandan farmers\nwho made decisions about when to enjoy entertainment instead of working. We find that\nexperimentally induced thoughts about poverty-related problems increase the preference to\nconsume entertainment early and delay work. The effect is equivalent to a 27 p.p. increase in\nthe intertemporal rate of substitution. Using monitoring tools similar to eye tracking, a novel\nfeature for this subject pool, we show this effect is not due to a lower ability to sustain attention. Keywords: poverty; scarcity; time discounting Fulltext is available at external website.
Effects of poverty on impatience: preferences or inattention?

We study two psychological channels how poverty may increase impatient behavior – an effect\non time preference and reduced attention. We measured discount rates among Ugandan farmers\nwho made ...

Bartoš, V.; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Levely, I.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Caught in the cycle: economic conditions at enrollment and labor market outcomes of college graduates
Bičáková, Alena; Cortes, G. M.; Mazza, J.
2018 - English
We find robust evidence that cohorts of graduates who enter college during worse economic\ntimes earn higher average wages than those who enter during better times. This difference is\nnot explained by differences in economic conditions at the time of college graduation, changes\nin _eld of study composition, or changes in selection into occupations or industries. Cohorts\nwho start college in bad times are not more positively selected based on their high-school\noutcomes, but they graduate with higher college grades, and earn higher wages conditional on\ntheir grades. Our results suggest that these cohorts exert more effort during their studies. Keywords: business cycle; higher education; cohort effects Fulltext is available at external website.
Caught in the cycle: economic conditions at enrollment and labor market outcomes of college graduates

We find robust evidence that cohorts of graduates who enter college during worse economic\ntimes earn higher average wages than those who enter during better times. This difference is\nnot explained ...

Bičáková, Alena; Cortes, G. M.; Mazza, J.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
2018 - English
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results. Keywords: digitalization; entrepreneurship; technology dissemination Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions

Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the ...

Pleticha, Petr
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Formation of market beliefs in the oil market
Anatolyev, Stanislav; Seleznev, S.; Selezneva, Veronika
2018 - English
We characterize formation of market beliefs in the oil market by providing a complete characterization of the market reaction to oil inventory surprises. We utilize the unique sequential nature of inventory announcements to identify inventory shocks. We estimate an AR-ARCH-MEM model of the joint dynamics of returns, return volatilities and trading volumes around the announcements using high frequency data on oil futures contracts. Our model (i) handles illiquidity of long maturity contracts by accounting for trading inactivity, (ii) captures time varying trading intensity, and (iii) allows for structural changes in the dynamics and responses to news over time. We show (i) uniform formation of expectations across oil futures contracts with different maturities, (ii) a strong negative relation between inventories surprises and re-turns, (iii) no effect on the term premium, which suggests that inventory shocks are always considered to be permanent, and (iv) di_erentiation in the reaction of volume by maturity. We demonstrate how our results can be used to test theories of oil price determination and contribute to the debate on the recent oil glut. Keywords: oil market; ultra high frequency data; trading intensity Fulltext is available at external website.
Formation of market beliefs in the oil market

We characterize formation of market beliefs in the oil market by providing a complete characterization of the market reaction to oil inventory surprises. We utilize the unique sequential nature of ...

Anatolyev, Stanislav; Seleznev, S.; Selezneva, Veronika
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Europa Postmediaevalis 2018. Post-medieval pottery between (its) borders. 16-19 April 2018
Matějková, K.; Blažková, Gabriela
2018 - English
There are many ways how to deal with ceramic finds from archaeological research. The ceramic is introduced to cross borders and work on a multinational platform. There were 13 countries presented. Keywords: Early Modern Age; ceramic; Europe Fulltext is available at external website.
Europa Postmediaevalis 2018. Post-medieval pottery between (its) borders. 16-19 April 2018

There are many ways how to deal with ceramic finds from archaeological research. The ceramic is introduced to cross borders and work on a multinational platform. There were 13 countries presented.

Matějková, K.; Blažková, Gabriela
Archeologický ústav, Praha, 2018

Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
2018 - English
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results. Keywords: digitalization; entrepreneurship; technology dissemination Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions

Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the ...

Pleticha, Petr
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Selective sampling with information-storage constraints
Jehiel, P.; Steiner, Jakub
2018 - English
A decision-maker acquires payoff-relevant information until she reaches her storing capacity, at\nwhich point she either terminates the decision-making and chooses an action, or discards some\ninformation. By conditioning the probability of termination on the information collected, she\ncontrols the correlation between the payoff state and her terminal action. We provide an\noptimality condition for the emerging stochastic choice. The condition highlights the benefits of\nselective memory applied to the extracted signals. The constrained-optimal choice rule exhibits (i)\nconfirmation bias, (ii) speed-accuracy complementarity, (iii) overweighting of rare events, and\n(iv) salience effect. Keywords: bounded rationality; cognitive constraints; information processing Fulltext is available at external website.
Selective sampling with information-storage constraints

A decision-maker acquires payoff-relevant information until she reaches her storing capacity, at\nwhich point she either terminates the decision-making and chooses an action, or discards ...

Jehiel, P.; Steiner, Jakub
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

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