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Outputs and Results
Rehák, Branislav
2023 - English
This manuscript aims to deliver a survey of results obtained during the solution of the project No. GA19-07635S of the Czech Science Foundation. The timespan dedicated to the work on this project was 1.3.2019 - 30.6.2022. The main area dealt with were\nnonlinear multi-agent systems and their synchronization, further, attention was paid to some auxiliary results in the area of nonlinear observers. This Report briefly introduces the Project, provides a summary of the results obtained and also sketches an outline how these results will be applied and extended in future. Keywords: multi-agent systems; nonlinear multi-agent systems; synchronization Fulltext is available at external website.
Outputs and Results

This manuscript aims to deliver a survey of results obtained during the solution of the project No. GA19-07635S of the Czech Science Foundation. The timespan dedicated to the work on this project was ...

Rehák, Branislav
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2023

Metodika identifikace a klasifikace území s krajinnými hodnotami
Kuča, Karel; Kupka, Jiří; Vorel, Ivan; Vondráčková, Simona
2022 - Czech
Metodika, která úzce navazuje na předchozí výsledky mezioborové spolupráce kolektivu autorů v oblasti historické kulturní krajiny, zejména na metodiku Typologie historické kulturní krajiny České republiky, má sloužit mj. pro vymezování v roce 2018 nově zavedeného jevu územně analytických podkladů obcí č. 11: Urbanistické a krajinářské hodnoty. Důležitou částí metodiky je popis způsobu, který zajistí jednoznačné a správné zatřídění jakéhokoli území do jedné z hodnotových kategorií (včetně území, která krajinné hodnoty nevykazují). Postup je popsán ve třech základních krocích (etapách) včetně samotného postupu pro vymezení území. Novost a jedinečnost metodiky spočívá ve vytvoření odborného podkladu pro vymezování území s krajinnými hodnotami, který dosud v rámci územně plánovací praxe chyběl. Metodika je zpracována na základě více než třicetiletých zkušeností autorů z terénních průzkumů a hodnocení historické kulturní krajiny (a urbanismu) v České republice a sledování relevantní odborné literatury a expertní diskuse na národní i mezinárodní úrovni. The methodology, which is closely related to the previous results of interdisciplinary cooperation of the team of authors in the field of historical cultural landscape, in particular to the methodology of the Typology of Historical Cultural Landscape of the Czech Republic, is intended to serve, among others, for the definition of the newly introduced in 2018 spatial analytical documents of municipalities No. 11: Urban and Landscape Values. An important part of the methodology is the description of the method that ensures unambiguous and correct classification of any territory into one of the value categories (including territories that do not show landscape values). The procedure is described in three basic steps (stages), including the procedure for the designation itself. The novelty and uniqueness of the methodology lies in the creation of a professional basis for the delineation of areas with landscape values, which has been lacking in spatial planning practice so far. The methodology is based on more than 30 years of experience of the authors in field surveys and evaluation of historic cultural landscapes (and urbanism) in the Czech Republic and monitoring of relevant literature and expert discussions at national and international level. Keywords: území s krajinnými hodnotami; územně-analytické podklady; identifikace; klasifikace; areas with landscape values; spatial analytical documents; identification; classification Available in a digital repository NRGL
Metodika identifikace a klasifikace území s krajinnými hodnotami

Metodika, která úzce navazuje na předchozí výsledky mezioborové spolupráce kolektivu autorů v oblasti historické kulturní krajiny, zejména na metodiku Typologie historické kulturní krajiny České ...

Kuča, Karel; Kupka, Jiří; Vorel, Ivan; Vondráčková, Simona
Výzkumný ústav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasné zahradnictví, v.v.i., 2022

Turbine blade linkages in reduced modal synthesis model
Pešek, Luděk; Šnábl, Pavel
2022 - English
The paper is the first stage of our modelling turbine blade linkages in reduced modal synthesis model. The modal synthesis method is used for the dynamic behaviour studies of turbine bladed wheels with frictional inter-blade linkages and in case of the microslips the stiffening effect of the linkages play an important role in wheel dynamics. The paper presents the first results of modal analysis of the wheel when springs were used to substitute the linkages in the modal synthesis model. Keywords: bladed wheel; reduced model; tie-boss; shroud; stiffening Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Turbine blade linkages in reduced modal synthesis model

The paper is the first stage of our modelling turbine blade linkages in reduced modal synthesis model. The modal synthesis method is used for the dynamic behaviour studies of turbine bladed wheels ...

Pešek, Luděk; Šnábl, Pavel
Ústav termomechaniky, 2022

NMR Aerosolomics Study of Water-Soluble Organic Compounds in Size-Resolved Particulate Matter
Horník, Štěpán; Vodička, Petr; Pokorná, Petra; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír; Sýkora, Jan
2022 - English
Organic aerosols (OA) account for a significant fraction (10 – 90%) of atmospheric particulate matter (Hallquist et al., 2009). The composition of organic aerosols is very complex and is usually characterized by their water solubility. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) constitute a large fraction of OA (10 – 80%) and consist of chemical species containing oxygenated functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, or carbonyl groups. NMR spectroscopy represents an alternative to commonly used techniques (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-based techniques) for WSOC analysis. Our recently introduced method, called NMR aerosolomics, allows quantitative analysis of dozens of individual compounds from different aerosol samples. An important part of the characterization of aerosols is their classification by particle size. The analysis of individual compounds in the size-resolved fractions of the WSOC class has been performed only in a few studies that focus mainly on a particular subclass of compounds or use multiple analytical techniques. Keywords: NMR; aerosolomics; organic composition Fulltext is available at external website.
NMR Aerosolomics Study of Water-Soluble Organic Compounds in Size-Resolved Particulate Matter

Organic aerosols (OA) account for a significant fraction (10 – 90%) of atmospheric particulate matter (Hallquist et al., 2009). The composition of organic aerosols is very complex and is usually ...

Horník, Štěpán; Vodička, Petr; Pokorná, Petra; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír; Sýkora, Jan
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

Závislost aktivace aerosolu na meteorologických podmínkách
Zíková, Naděžda; Pokorná, Petra; Sedlák, Pavel; Ždímal, Vladimír
2022 - Czech
V šesté hodnotící zprávě IPCC byla nejvyšší hodnota aerosolového forcingu připsána tzv. nepřímému aerosolovému efektu, tedy interakci mezi atmosférickým aerosolem (AA) a oblačností (Arias a kol., 2021). Tato interakce závisí na množství aktivovaných oblačných jader, což je veličina, kterou je náročné měřit i modelovat. Proto byl zkoumán vliv velikostně diferencované aktivace AA na meteorologických veličinách a jevech. Four intensive in-situ campaigns focused on aerosol-cloud interactions were performed in the autumn and spring months from Nov 2018 to Apr 2020 at Milešovka Mountain in Czechia to bring more insight into size-dependent aerosol activation and dependence on its origin for a wide variety of meteorological parameters. Most activated particles were larger than 100 nm, with a mode over 200 nm. For the description of the changes in the activation, no effect of photochemistry was found, in contrast, some dependence on relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and liquid water content (LWC) proved to be useful. The strongest connection was found between activation and LWC. For LWC below 0.1 g/m3, in the LWC-limited regime, the LWC values and variables effecting the LWC were the main factors influencing the activation, while different parameters could have played a role at LWCs over 0.1 g/m3, in the LWC-independent regime. Keywords: atmospheric aerosols; activation; meteorological phenomena Fulltext is available at external website.
Závislost aktivace aerosolu na meteorologických podmínkách

V šesté hodnotící zprávě IPCC byla nejvyšší hodnota aerosolového forcingu připsána tzv. nepřímému aerosolovému efektu, tedy interakci mezi atmosférickým aerosolem (AA) a oblačností (Arias a kol., ...

Zíková, Naděžda; Pokorná, Petra; Sedlák, Pavel; Ždímal, Vladimír
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

Three Years of Experience with Measurement of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentrations Using Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter CCN-200
Moravec, Pavel; Lhotka, Radek; Ždímal, Vladimír
2022 - English
Aerosol particles in the atmosphere that allow water vapor to condense and form cloud droplets are called Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). Elevated concentrations of \nCCN tend to increase the concentration and decrease the size of droplets. This can lead to suppression of precipitation in shallow and short-lived clouds and to greater convective \noverturning and more precipitation in deep convective clouds. The response of cloud properties and precipitation processes to increasing anthropogenic aerosol concentrations represents one of the largest uncertainties in the current understanding of climate change. One of the fundamental challenges is to determine the ability of aerosol particles to act as CCN under relevant atmospheric conditions. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution in the atmosphere is essential to incorporate the effects of CCN into meteorological models of all scales, Huang et al. (2007). Long-term CCN measurements are performed at aerosol monitoring sites such as those forming ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure) network. In this paper, we present the three-year experience of measuring CCN concentrations over the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), a rural background site in the Czech Republic. The first results of these measurements were presented by Mishra et al. (2022) Keywords: atmospheric aerosols; CCN; CCN concentration measurement Fulltext is available at external website.
Three Years of Experience with Measurement of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentrations Using Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter CCN-200

Aerosol particles in the atmosphere that allow water vapor to condense and form cloud droplets are called Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). Elevated concentrations of \nCCN tend to increase the ...

Moravec, Pavel; Lhotka, Radek; Ždímal, Vladimír
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

Parallel Determination of Particulate Ammonium by Using a Continuous Aerosol Sampler and Cascade Impactor
Alexa, Lukáš; Hlaváčková, H.; Cigánková, Hana; Mikuška, Pavel
2022 - English
Ammonia is a significant gaseous pollutant present in the atmosphere. As a neutralizing agent of acidic species ammonia forms particle-phase ammonium (NH4+) salts and contributes thus to formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols (Harrison and Jones, 1995). Aerosols (particulate matter, PM) are responsible for many negative effects on environments and health risks to human. The diameter of PM has significant impact on their environmental exposure, where the decreasing particle size increases the adverse health effects. The ultrafine particles hence play a major role in adverse impact on human health (Ryer-Powder, 1991). Presented paper describes the use of the novel continuous aerosol sampler for online, and a commercial cascade impactor for offline, determination of NH4+ in ambient air. Keywords: ammonium; atmospheric aerosol; online analysis; cascade impactor Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Parallel Determination of Particulate Ammonium by Using a Continuous Aerosol Sampler and Cascade Impactor

Ammonia is a significant gaseous pollutant present in the atmosphere. As a neutralizing agent of acidic species ammonia forms particle-phase ammonium (NH4+) salts and contributes thus to formation of ...

Alexa, Lukáš; Hlaváčková, H.; Cigánková, Hana; Mikuška, Pavel
Ústav analytické chemie, 2022

Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace
Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
2022 - Czech
Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. Mezi žáky s trojkou chce na VŠ jen 39 %. Mezi základními školami panují v přísnosti známkování velké rozdíly. Klasifikace žáků se stejnými akademickými výsledky se mezi školami liší v průměru o celý klasifikační stupeň. Při stejných dovednostech mají žáci z přísně známkujících škol nižší studijní ambice oproti žákům z mírně známkujících škol. Známky na vysvědčení také často představují jedno z přijímacích kritérií na středních školách a víceletých gymnáziích. Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování a zásadní role známek při plánování budoucí vzdělávací dráhy mohou tedy vést k chybným rozhodnutím žáků a rodičů, neefektivitám ve vzdělávacím systému a k suboptimální alokaci talentů. For students and their parents, school grades are a key piece of information that helps to shape educational and career ambitions. We find that 87% of Czech ninth graders with an A in mathematics want to go to university. Among students with a C, only 39% have the same aspiration. There is wide variation in the strictness of grading across Czech primary schools. On average, grades awarded can differ by as much as a full letter grade between stricter and more moderately grading schools. Even when they in fact have measurably equivalent skills, students from schools that grade more strictly have lower academic aspirations than students from schools that grade more moderately. Grades on report cards are also often among the admissions criteria for secondary schools and high schools. Differences in the strictness of grading and the crucial roles of grades in planning future educational paths can therefore lead to misguided decisions by students and parents, inefficiencies in the education system, and suboptimal allocation of talent. Keywords: primary schools; school grades; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace

Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. ...

Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Is longer maternal care always beneficial? The impact of a four-year paid parental leave
Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
2022 - English
We study the impact of an extension of paid family leave from 3 to 4 years on child long-term outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences design and comparing the first-affected with the last-unaffected cohorts of children, we find that an additional year of maternal care at the age of 3, which primarily crowded out enrollment into public kindergartens, had an adverse effect for children of loweducated mothers on human capital investments and labor-market attachment in early adulthood. The affected children were 12 p.p. more likely not to be in education, employment, or training (NEET) at the age of 21-22. The impact on daughters was larger and driven by a lower probability of attending college and higher probability of home production. Sons of low-educated mothers, on the other hand, were less likely to be employed. The results suggest that exposure to formal childcare may be more beneficial than all-day maternal care at the age of 3, especially for children with a lower socio-economic background. Keywords: family leave; maternal care; subsidized childcare Fulltext is available at external website.
Is longer maternal care always beneficial? The impact of a four-year paid parental leave

We study the impact of an extension of paid family leave from 3 to 4 years on child long-term outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences design and comparing the first-affected with the ...

Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Sezónní změny stabilního izotopového složení uhlíku (Δ13C) v aerosolu a plynné fázi na předměstské stanici v Praze
Vodička, Petr; Kawamura, K.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír
2022 - Czech
Izotopová frakcionace mezi plynnou a aerosolovou fází je důležitým jevem při studiu atmosférických procesů. V této práci jsme zkoumali sezónní změny poměru stabilních izotopů uhlíku (δ13C) celkového uhlíku (TC, δ13CTC) a organického uhlíku rozpustného ve vodě (WSOC, δ13CWSOC) v jemných aerosolových částicích (PM2,5) a celkového uhlíku plynné fáze (TCgas, δ13CTCgas) na příměstské lokalitě v Praze. In this work, seasonal variations in the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of total carbon (TC, δ13CTC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, δ13CWSOC) in fine aerosol\nparticles (PM2.5) as well as in the total carbon of the gas phase (TCgas, δ13CTCgas) were studied. Despite the different seasonal compositions of carbonaceous aerosols, the\nisotope differences (Δδ13C) between the analyzed bulk aerosol parts and gas phases were similar during the seasons. This shows that the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes is a predominantly physical process in which the chemical composition of individual compounds in bulk aerosols does not play a major role. Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; gas phase; δ13C, seasonal variation Fulltext is available at external website.
Sezónní změny stabilního izotopového složení uhlíku (Δ13C) v aerosolu a plynné fázi na předměstské stanici v Praze

Izotopová frakcionace mezi plynnou a aerosolovou fází je důležitým jevem při studiu atmosférických procesů. V této práci jsme zkoumali sezónní změny poměru stabilních izotopů uhlíku (δ13C) celkového ...

Vodička, Petr; Kawamura, K.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

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