Number of found documents: 882
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Information, perceived returns and college major choices
Kudashvili, Nikoloz; Todua, Gega
2022 - English
Students may hold inaccurate beliefs about earnings and employment opportunities when making their education decisions. This paper analyzes the effects of information provision on student’s intended and actual college major choices in Georgia. Secondary school students in our experiment systematically overestimated the earnings and unemployment rates of college graduates. We find that 10 percent more students who received information on actual earnings and unemployment changed their actual college major choices than others. The changes in their majors are partly driven by differences in the perceived and actual unemployment rates, whereas the earning differences do not appear to play a role. We also estimate spillover effects on students who do not receive information directly, and show that they matter, but only for older students who are closer to high school graduation. Importantly, we find that the immediate changes in the intended choices are not linked to the final major choices, suggesting that measuring the effects of information on immediately expressed intentions may not be sufficient to understand how information affects actual real-life decisions. We find that both direct and indirect information provision have sizable effects on student college major choices. Keywords: college major; perceived unemployment; perceived earnings Fulltext is available at external website.
Information, perceived returns and college major choices

Students may hold inaccurate beliefs about earnings and employment opportunities when making their education decisions. This paper analyzes the effects of information provision on student’s intended ...

Kudashvili, Nikoloz; Todua, Gega
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Social networks and surviving the Holocaust
Bělín, M.; Jelínek, T.; Jurajda, Štěpán
2022 - English
Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the formation of close friendships with other prisoners. We provide statistical evidence consistent with these fundamentally selective testimonies. We study the survival of the 140 thousand Jews who entered the Theresienstadt ghetto, where 33 thousand died and from where over 80 thousand were sent to extermination camps. We ask whether an individual’s social status prior to deportation, and the availability of potential friends among fellow prisoners influenced the risk of death in Theresienstadt, the ability to avoid transports to the camps, and the chances of surviving Auschwitz. Pre-deportation social status protected prisoners in the self-administered society of the Theresienstadt ghetto, but it was no longer helpful in the extreme conditions of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. Relying on multiple proxies of pre-existing social networks, we uncover a significant survival advantage to entering Auschwitz with a group of potential friends. Keywords: social status; social networks; Holocaust survival Fulltext is available at external website.
Social networks and surviving the Holocaust

Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the formation of close friendships with other prisoners. We provide statistical evidence consistent with ...

Bělín, M.; Jelínek, T.; Jurajda, Štěpán
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Proximity to help matters: the effect of access to centers of legal aid on bankruptcy rates
Hrehová, Kristína; Domonkos, Š.
2022 - English
Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its underuse by eligible debtors. Using a large administrative dataset of personal bankruptcies, we study the impact of spatial distance from public Centers for Legal Aid (CLAs) on the regional incidence of personal bankruptcy in Slovakia. We avoid endogeneity by focusing on the increased availability of legal aid controlling for the expected\ndistance from the nearest CLA, which serves as the first contact point in the process of filing for personal bankruptcy in the Slovak Republic. Distance from these legal aid centers has a significant impact on personal bankruptcy rates: the closer the nearest CLA is, the larger the prevalence of personal bankruptcy is in a given municipality. We quantify the impact of service access on personal bankruptcy rates, showing that improved access to free legal aid has both a statistically and substantively significant impact on the use of personal bankruptcy by the public. At the end of the almost 3-year-long period analyzed, municipalities with good access to CLAs had 3.3 bankruptcies more per 1,000 inhabitants than municipalities with weak access to CLAs. This effect is significant, as the average national bankruptcy rate until December 2019 reached 6.3 bankruptcies per 1,000 persons. Keywords: personal bankruptcy; insolvency; policy analysis Fulltext is available at external website.
Proximity to help matters: the effect of access to centers of legal aid on bankruptcy rates

Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its ...

Hrehová, Kristína; Domonkos, Š.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Do pessimistic expectations about discrimination make minorities withdraw their effort? Causal evidence
Korlyakova, Darya
2022 - English
There is a long-standing concern that expected discrimination discourages minorities from exercising effort to succeed. Effort withdrawal could contribute to confirming negative stereotypes about minorities’ productivity and enduring disparities. This paper extends the findings of correlational research by exogenously manipulating individuals’ beliefs about discrimination against their group and exploring a causal link between perceived discrimination and individuals’ labor market behavior. For this purpose, we conduct an online experiment in the US with a diverse sample of 2,000 African Americans. We randomly assign individuals to two groups and inform one group about the frequency of discrimination against African Americans in a previous survey. To study the information effects on effort,\nwe subsequently measure participants’ results on a math task. We document that most individuals initially overestimate discrimination against African Americans. The overestimation decreases strongly and significantly as a result of information provision. At the same time, treated individuals, males in particular, attempt and solve correctly fewer math problems compared to untreated individuals. Hence, our findings do not support the common concern that minorities’ inflated expectations about discrimination induce them to underperform. Keywords: perceived discrimination; racial minorities; effort Fulltext is available at external website.
Do pessimistic expectations about discrimination make minorities withdraw their effort? Causal evidence

There is a long-standing concern that expected discrimination discourages minorities from exercising effort to succeed. Effort withdrawal could contribute to confirming negative stereotypes about ...

Korlyakova, Darya
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace
Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
2022 - Czech
Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. Mezi žáky s trojkou chce na VŠ jen 39 %. Mezi základními školami panují v přísnosti známkování velké rozdíly. Klasifikace žáků se stejnými akademickými výsledky se mezi školami liší v průměru o celý klasifikační stupeň. Při stejných dovednostech mají žáci z přísně známkujících škol nižší studijní ambice oproti žákům z mírně známkujících škol. Známky na vysvědčení také často představují jedno z přijímacích kritérií na středních školách a víceletých gymnáziích. Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování a zásadní role známek při plánování budoucí vzdělávací dráhy mohou tedy vést k chybným rozhodnutím žáků a rodičů, neefektivitám ve vzdělávacím systému a k suboptimální alokaci talentů. For students and their parents, school grades are a key piece of information that helps to shape educational and career ambitions. We find that 87% of Czech ninth graders with an A in mathematics want to go to university. Among students with a C, only 39% have the same aspiration. There is wide variation in the strictness of grading across Czech primary schools. On average, grades awarded can differ by as much as a full letter grade between stricter and more moderately grading schools. Even when they in fact have measurably equivalent skills, students from schools that grade more strictly have lower academic aspirations than students from schools that grade more moderately. Grades on report cards are also often among the admissions criteria for secondary schools and high schools. Differences in the strictness of grading and the crucial roles of grades in planning future educational paths can therefore lead to misguided decisions by students and parents, inefficiencies in the education system, and suboptimal allocation of talent. Keywords: primary schools; school grades; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace

Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. ...

Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Is longer maternal care always beneficial? The impact of a four-year paid parental leave
Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
2022 - English
We study the impact of an extension of paid family leave from 3 to 4 years on child long-term outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences design and comparing the first-affected with the last-unaffected cohorts of children, we find that an additional year of maternal care at the age of 3, which primarily crowded out enrollment into public kindergartens, had an adverse effect for children of loweducated mothers on human capital investments and labor-market attachment in early adulthood. The affected children were 12 p.p. more likely not to be in education, employment, or training (NEET) at the age of 21-22. The impact on daughters was larger and driven by a lower probability of attending college and higher probability of home production. Sons of low-educated mothers, on the other hand, were less likely to be employed. The results suggest that exposure to formal childcare may be more beneficial than all-day maternal care at the age of 3, especially for children with a lower socio-economic background. Keywords: family leave; maternal care; subsidized childcare Fulltext is available at external website.
Is longer maternal care always beneficial? The impact of a four-year paid parental leave

We study the impact of an extension of paid family leave from 3 to 4 years on child long-term outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences design and comparing the first-affected with the ...

Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Setting interim deadlines to persuade
Senkov, Maxim
2022 - English
This paper studies the optimal design of self-reporting on the progress of a project by a rent-seeking agent reporting to a principal who is concerned with accomplishing the project before an exogenous deadline. The project has two stages: completing the first stage serves as a milestone and completing the second stage accomplishes the project. I show that if the project is sufficiently promising ex ante, then the agent commits to provide only the good news that the project is accomplished. If the project is not promising\nenough ex ante, the agent persuades the principal to start the funding by committing to provide not only good news but also the bad news that the milestone of the project has not been reached by an interim deadline. Keywords: dynamic Bayesian persuasion; informational incentives; interim deadline Fulltext is available at external website.
Setting interim deadlines to persuade

This paper studies the optimal design of self-reporting on the progress of a project by a rent-seeking agent reporting to a principal who is concerned with accomplishing the project before an ...

Senkov, Maxim
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Publikační výkonnost panelistů Grantové agentury ČR (2019–2021)
Bajgar, Matěj
2022 - Czech
Cílem výzkumu bylo zjistit, nakolik vědecké výsledky členů hodnotících panelů Grantové agentury České republiky (GA ČR) potvrzují jejich vědeckou erudovanost pro hodnocení návrhů Standardních projektů GA ČR. The aim of this research has been to find out to what extent the scientific results of the members of the Czech Science Foundation (GA ČR) evaluation panels confirm their erudition for evaluating GA ČR Standard Project proposals. Keywords: Czech Science Foundation; evaluation panels; publication performance Fulltext is available at external website.
Publikační výkonnost panelistů Grantové agentury ČR (2019–2021)

Cílem výzkumu bylo zjistit, nakolik vědecké výsledky členů hodnotících panelů Grantové agentury České republiky (GA ČR) potvrzují jejich vědeckou erudovanost pro hodnocení návrhů Standardních projektů ...

Bajgar, Matěj
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

An equivalence between rational inattention problems and complete-information conformity games
Ilinov, Pavel; Jann, Ole
2022 - English
We consider two types of models: (i) a rational inattention problem (as known from the literature) and (ii) a conformity game, in which fully informed players find it costly to deviate from average behavior. We show that these problems are equivalent to each other both from the perspective of the participant and the outside observer: Each individual faces identical trade-offs in both situations, and an observer would not be able to distinguish the two models from the choice data they generate. We also establish when individual behavior in the conformity game maximizes welfare. Keywords: conformity; equivalence; rational inattention Fulltext is available at external website.
An equivalence between rational inattention problems and complete-information conformity games

We consider two types of models: (i) a rational inattention problem (as known from the literature) and (ii) a conformity game, in which fully informed players find it costly to deviate from average ...

Ilinov, Pavel; Jann, Ole
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

RBTC and human capital: accounting for individual-level responses
Kashkarov, Daniil
2022 - English
I test the contribution of individual human capital responses to earnings inequality arising in the process of the routine-biased technological change (RBTC). I develop a lifecycle model of human capital and occupational choice, calibrate it to the NLSY79 data, using the price series for human capital in abstract and routine occupations estimated from the cross-sectional CPS data with the “flat spot” approach. I then use the model to quantify the effect of a change in human capital prices on earnings inequality. I find that an increase in the price for human capital in abstract occupations and a fall in its price in routine occupations associated with RBTC has a modest contribution to the evolution of variance of log-earnings — up to 10.8 per cent by the end of the working life cycle. However, the contribution of RBTC to an increase in the abstract wage premium over the lifetime of the NLSY79 cohorts is up to 28.6 per cent. The growth of the abstract wage premium is significantly dampened by the human capital responses of workers switching from routine occupations. Keywords: RBTC; human capital; life-cycle modelling Fulltext is available at external website.
RBTC and human capital: accounting for individual-level responses

I test the contribution of individual human capital responses to earnings inequality arising in the process of the routine-biased technological change (RBTC). I develop a lifecycle model of human ...

Kashkarov, Daniil
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

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