Number of found documents: 783
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On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs
Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.
2023 - English
Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount ofshortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of betweenness centrality. In this contribution, wefocus on betweenness-uniform graphs with betweenness centrality below one. Wedisprove a conjecture about the existence of a BUG with betweenness valueαforany rational numberαfrom the interval (3/4,∞) by showing that only very few be-tweenness centrality values below 6/7 are attained for at least one BUG. Furthermore,among graphs with diameter at least three, there are no betweenness-uniform graphswith a betweenness centrality smaller than one. In graphs of smaller diameter, thesame can be shown under a uniformity condition on the components of the comple-ment. Available in digital repository of the ASCR
On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs

Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount ofshortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of ...

Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment
Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.
2023 - English
We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been chosen as a testing domain because solid validation campaign for PALM simulation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) over this quarter was documented in the past. The question of input data needed for such simulation and capability of the model to capture correctly the inlet profile and its turbulence structure provided by the wind-tunnel is discussed in the study The PALM dynamical core contains a solver for the Navier-Stokes equations. By default, the model uses the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach in which the bulk of the turbulent motions is explicitly resolved. It is well validated tool for simulations of the complex air-flow within the real urban canopy and also within its reduced scale provided by wind tunnel experiments. However the computed flow field between the testing buildings did not correspond well to the measured wind velocity in some points. Different setting of the inlet boundary condition was tested but none of them gave completely developed turbulent flow generated by vortex generators and castellated barrier wall place at the entrance of the aerodynamic section of the wind tunnel.\n Keywords: large eddy simulation; wind tunnel; atmospheric boundary layer; PALM model; turbulence Fulltext is available at external website.
Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment

We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been ...

Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Epidemiologické modely s agenty
Neruda, Roman
2023 - Czech
Tento příspěvek je jemným úvodem do problematiky agentních modelů a jejich aplikací v epidemiologickém modelování. Představíme agentní modely jednak z hlediska informatiky, jednak jako nástroj modelování v jiných vědních disciplínách. V příkladové studii ukážeme model s agenty a sociální sítí jejich kontaktů, který slouží pro simulaci vývoje epidemie a vlivu protiepidemických opatření. Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Epidemiologické modely s agenty

Tento příspěvek je jemným úvodem do problematiky agentních modelů a jejich aplikací v epidemiologickém modelování. Představíme agentní modely jednak z hlediska informatiky, jednak jako nástroj ...

Neruda, Roman
Ústav informatiky, 2023

From John Graunt to Adolphe Quetelet: on the Origins Of Demography
Kalina, Jan
2023 - English
John Graunt (1620-1674) and Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) were two important personalities, who contributed to the origins of demography. As they both developed statistical techniques for the analysis of demographic data, they are important also from the point of view of history of statistics. The contributions of both Graunt and Quetelet especially to the development of mortality tables and models are recalled in this paper. Already from the 17th century, the available mortality tables were exploited for computing life annuities. Also the contribution of selected personalities inspired by Graunt are recalled here, the work of Christian Huygens, Jacob Bernoulli, or Abraham de Moivre is discussed to document that the historical development of statistics and probability theory was connected with the development of demography. Keywords: history of demography; history of statistics; probability theory; moral statistics; mortality tables Fulltext is available at external website.
From John Graunt to Adolphe Quetelet: on the Origins Of Demography

John Graunt (1620-1674) and Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) were two important personalities, who contributed to the origins of demography. As they both developed statistical techniques for the analysis ...

Kalina, Jan
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Beyond the Erdős–Sós conjecture
Davoodi, Akbar; Piguet, Diana; Řada, Hanka; Sanhueza-Matamala, N.
2023 - English
We prove an asymptotic version of a tree-containment conjecture of Klimošová, Piguet and Rozhoň [European J. Combin. 88 (2020), 103106] for graphs with quadratically many edges. The result implies that the asymptotic version of the Erdős-Sós conjecture in the setting of dense graphs is correct. Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Beyond the Erdős–Sós conjecture

We prove an asymptotic version of a tree-containment conjecture of Klimošová, Piguet and Rozhoň [European J. Combin. 88 (2020), 103106] for graphs with quadratically many edges. The result implies ...

Davoodi, Akbar; Piguet, Diana; Řada, Hanka; Sanhueza-Matamala, N.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Rooting algebraic vertices of convergent sequences
Hartman, David; Hons, T.; Nešetřil, J.
2023 - English
Structural convergence is a framework for convergence of graphs by Nešetřil andOssona de Mendez that unifies the dense (left) graph convergence and Benjamini-Schramm convergence. They posed a problem asking whether for a given sequenceof graphs (Gn) converging to a limit L and a vertexrofLit is possible to find asequence of vertices (rn) such thatLrooted atris the limit of the graphsGnrootedatrn. A counterexample was found by Christofides and Král’, but they showed thatthe statement holds for almost all vertices r of L. We offer another perspective to theoriginal problem by considering the size of definable sets to which the rootrbelongs.We prove that if r is an algebraic vertex (i.e. belongs to a finite definable set), thesequence of roots (rn) always exists. Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Rooting algebraic vertices of convergent sequences

Structural convergence is a framework for convergence of graphs by Nešetřil andOssona de Mendez that unifies the dense (left) graph convergence and Benjamini-Schramm convergence. They posed a problem ...

Hartman, David; Hons, T.; Nešetřil, J.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Some Robust Approaches to Reducing the Complexity of Economic Data
Kalina, Jan
2023 - English
The recent advent of complex (and potentially big) data in economics requires modern and effective tools for their analysis including tools for reducing the dimensionality (complexity) of the given data. This paper starts with recalling the importance of Big Data in economics and with characterizing the main categories of dimension reduction techniques. While there have already been numerous techniques for dimensionality reduction available, this work is interested in methods that are robust to the presence of outlying measurements (outliers) in the economic data. Particularly, methods based on implicit weighting assigned to individual observations are developed in this paper. As the main contribution, this paper proposes three novel robust methods of dimension reduction. One method is a dimension reduction within a robust regularized linear regression, namely a sparse version of the least weighted squares estimator. The other two methods are robust versions of feature extraction methods popular in econometrics: robust principal component analysis and robust factor analysis. Keywords: dimensionality reduction; Big Data; variable selection; robustness; sparsity Fulltext is available at external website.
Some Robust Approaches to Reducing the Complexity of Economic Data

The recent advent of complex (and potentially big) data in economics requires modern and effective tools for their analysis including tools for reducing the dimensionality (complexity) of the given ...

Kalina, Jan
Ústav informatiky, 2023

The 2022 Election in the United States: Reliability of a Linear Regression Model
Kalina, Jan; Vidnerová, Petra; Večeř, M.
2023 - English
In this paper, the 2022 United States election to the House of Representatives is analyzed by means of a linear regression model. After the election process is explained, the popular vote is modeled as a response of 8 predictors (demographic characteristics) on the state-wide level. The main focus is paid to verifying the reliability of two obtained regression models, namely the full model with all predictors and the most relevant submodel found by hypothesis testing (with 4 relevant predictors). Individual topics related to assessing reliability that are used in this study include confidence intervals for predictions, multicollinearity, and also outlier detection. While the predictions in the submodel that includes only relevant predictors are very similar to those in the full model, it turns out that the submodel has better reliability properties compared to the full model, especially in terms of narrower confidence intervals for the values of the popular vote. Keywords: elections results; electoral demography; linear regression; reliability; variability Fulltext is available at external website.
The 2022 Election in the United States: Reliability of a Linear Regression Model

In this paper, the 2022 United States election to the House of Representatives is analyzed by means of a linear regression model. After the election process is explained, the popular vote is modeled ...

Kalina, Jan; Vidnerová, Petra; Večeř, M.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Interaktivní nástroj pro podporu vyhodnocování dat ze standardizovaných testů
Martinková, Patrícia; Potužníková, E.; Netík, Jan
2022 - Czech
ZÁKLADNÍ ÚDAJE: Proměny výchovy a vzdělávání a jejich reflexe v pedagogickém výzkumu: Sborník příspěvků XXX. výroční konference České asociace pedagogického výzkumu. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2022 - (Švaříček, R., Voňková, H.), s. 29-31. ISBN 978-80-280-0090-5. [ČAPV 2022: Proměny výchovy a vzdělávání a jejich reflexe v pedagogickém výzkumu /30./. Babice / virtual (CZ), 29.08.2022-31.08.2022]. ABSTRAKT: V příspěvku představujeme možnosti využití modulu interaktivního nástroje pro vyhodnocování dat ze znalostních testů na příkladu dat z maturitní zkoušky z matematiky. Představujeme metody pro detekci odlišného fungování položek pro různé typy škol nebo pro porovnání vybrané školy s ostatními. Ukazujeme, že nástroj má potenciál přispět k informovanému využívání dat z testování a rozhodování na úrovni škol i vzdělávací politiky. In this work, we present features of an interactive tool module for supporting analyses of data from achievement tests by presenting an example of data from the Matura (graduation) exam in mathematics. We present methods for detection of different functioning of items for different types of school, or for comparison of a selected school with other schools. We show that the tool has a potential to help with informed use of achievement test data and to support decision making on both the school and the system levels. Keywords: achievement tests; group differences; interactive tool Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Interaktivní nástroj pro podporu vyhodnocování dat ze standardizovaných testů

ZÁKLADNÍ ÚDAJE: Proměny výchovy a vzdělávání a jejich reflexe v pedagogickém výzkumu: Sborník příspěvků XXX. výroční konference České asociace pedagogického výzkumu. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2022 ...

Martinková, Patrícia; Potužníková, E.; Netík, Jan
Ústav informatiky, 2022

A Bootstrap Comparison of Robust Regression Estimators
Kalina, Jan; Janáček, Patrik
2022 - English
The ordinary least squares estimator in linear regression is well known to be highly vulnerable to the presence of outliers in the data and available robust statistical estimators represent more preferable alternatives. It has been repeatedly recommended to use the least squares together with a robust estimator, where the latter is understood as a diagnostic tool for the former. In other words, only if the robust estimator yields a very different result, the user should investigate the dataset closer and search for explanations. For this purpose, a hypothesis test of equality of the means of two alternative linear regression estimators is proposed here based on nonparametric bootstrap. The performance of the test is presented on three real economic datasets with small samples. Robust estimates turn out not to be significantly different from non-robust estimates in the selected datasets. Still, robust estimation is beneficial in these datasets and the experiments illustrate one of possible ways of exploiting the bootstrap methodology in regression modeling. The bootstrap test could be easily extended to nonlinear regression models. Keywords: linear regression; robust estimation; nonparametric bootstrap; bootstrap hypothesis testing Fulltext is available at external website.
A Bootstrap Comparison of Robust Regression Estimators

The ordinary least squares estimator in linear regression is well known to be highly vulnerable to the presence of outliers in the data and available robust statistical estimators represent more ...

Kalina, Jan; Janáček, Patrik
Ústav informatiky, 2022

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