Number of found documents: 2068
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TESTING THE METHOD OF MULTIPLE SCALES AND THE AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR MODEL PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF QUASIPERIODIC TWO TIME-SCALE MODELS
Papáček, Štěpán; Matonoha, Ctirad
2023 - English
Some dynamical systems are characterized by more than one timescale, e.g. two well separated time-scales are typical for quasiperiodic systems. The aim of this paper is to show how singular perturbation methods based on the slow-fast decomposition can serve for an enhanced parameter estimation when the slowly changing features are rigorously treated. Although the ultimate goal is to reduce the standard error for the estimated parameters, here we test two methods for numerical approximations of the solution of associated forward problem: (i) the multiple time-scales method, and (ii) the method of averaging. On a case study, being an under-damped harmonic oscillator containing two state variables and two parameters, the method of averaging gives well (theoretically predicted) results, while the use of multiple time-scales method is not suitable for our purposes. Keywords: Dynamical system; Singular perturbation; Averaging; Parameter estimation; Slow-fast decomposition; Damped oscillations Fulltext is available at external website.
TESTING THE METHOD OF MULTIPLE SCALES AND THE AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR MODEL PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF QUASIPERIODIC TWO TIME-SCALE MODELS

Some dynamical systems are characterized by more than one timescale, e.g. two well separated time-scales are typical for quasiperiodic systems. The aim of this paper is to show how singular ...

Papáček, Štěpán; Matonoha, Ctirad
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2023

Some modifications of the limited-memory variable metric optimization methods
Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav
2023 - English
Several modifications of the limited-memory variable metric (or quasi-Newton) line search methods for large scale unconstrained optimization are investigated. First the block version of the symmetric rank-one (SR1) update formula is derived in a similar way as for the block BFGS update in Vlˇcek and Lukˇsan (Numerical Algorithms 2019). The block SR1 formula is then modified to obtain an update which can reduce the required number of arithmetic operations per iteration. Since it usually violates the corresponding secant conditions, this update is combined with the shifting investigated in Vlˇcek and Lukˇsan (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2006). Moreover, a new efficient way how to realize the limited-memory shifted BFGS method is proposed. For a class of methods based on the generalized shifted economy BFGS update, global convergence is established. A numerical comparison with the standard L-BFGS and BNS methods is given. Keywords: unconstrained minimization; variable metric methods; limited-memory methods; variationally derived methods; arithmetic operations reduction; global convergence Available in a digital repository NRGL
Some modifications of the limited-memory variable metric optimization methods

Several modifications of the limited-memory variable metric (or quasi-Newton) line search methods for large scale unconstrained optimization are investigated. First the block version of the symmetric ...

Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Kam a kolik vody odvádí stromy? Modelování vlivu smrkových a bukových porostů na toky vody v půdě během extrémních klimatických podmínek
Zelíková, Nikol; Šípek, Václav
2023 - Czech
Půdní vlhkost propojuje takové procesy, které ovlivňují celý hydrologický cyklus, a tím i dostupnost vodních zdrojů. Jedním z významných faktorů ovlivňující tyto procesy je přítomnost vegetace. Výzkum interakcí mezi vegetací, jejím managementem a procesy ovlivňující toky půdní vody nabývá na významu zejména v době probíhajících klimatických změn i změn krajinného pokryvu. Avšak komplexnost těchto interakcí, ovlivněná navíc jejich rozdílností mezi jednotlivými rostlinnými druhy tento výzkum ztěžuje. Proměna krajinného pokryvu probíhá také v českém lesnictví, konkrétně v podobě obměny smrkových monokultur buky. V této studii je proto zkoumán vliv dvou typů lesních porostů, smrku ztepilého (Picea abies) a buku lesního (Fagus sylvatica), na vodní režim půdy v experimentálním povodí Liz na Šumavě. A to (1) zjištěním rozdílů v množství půdní vláhy na základě dvaceti let naměřených dat a (2) získáním složek vodní bilance (transpirace a perkolace) na těchto dvou kontrastních plochách pomocí modelu bilance půdní vody. Z analýzy dlouhodobých dat půdních vlhkostí vyplývají nepatrně nižší hodnoty půdních vlhkostí pod porosty buku, které zanikají při srovnání průměrných ročních hodnot. Odlišnosti jsou patrné při hodnocení průměrných vlhkostí s hloubkou, kde v nejsvrchnější vrstvě půdního profilu smrk disponuje v průměru o 6 % vyššími zásobami půdní vody než buk. Z pohledu vývoje půdních vlhkostí během vegetační sezóny je půda z počátku sušší pod smrkem, který započíná svou transpiraci dříve. Tento rozdíl je v průběhu sezóny zredukován intenzivní transpirací buku. Výstupy bilančního modelu poukázaly na vyšší míru aktuální evapotranspirace buku a vyšší míru perkolace smrku během každého roku. Tento jev byl zvýrazněn během suchých let, kdežto v letech s dostatkem srážek byly rozdíly minimální. Zvýšení četnosti buku v krajině, tak může ovlivnit míru dotace podzemních vod. Soil moisture links processes that influence the entire hydrological cycle and thus the availability of water resources. One important factor influencing these processes is the presence of vegetation. Research on the interactions between vegetation, its management and the processes affecting soil water fluxes is of particular importance in times of ongoing climate change and land cover changes. However, the complexity of these interactions, further influenced by differences between plant species, makes this research more difficult. Land cover change is also taking place in Czechia, specifically in the replacement of spruce monocultures by beech. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of two types of forest stands, spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), on the soil water regime in the experimental Liz catchment in Bohemian Forest, Czechia. This was performed by (1) evaluating differences in soil moisture based on twenty years of measured data and (2) obtaining the two components of the soil water balance (transpiration and percolation) at two plots (beech and spruce) using a soil water balance model. Analysis of the long-term soil moisture data show slightly lower soil moisture values under the beech stands, which disappear when comparing the annual mean values. Differences are evident when evaluating average soil moisture data with depth, where the topmost layer of the soil profile at the spruce site has on average 6% higher soil water content than beech. At the start of the growing season the soil moisture was initially drier under spruce, due to its earlier start of transpiration. This difference was reduced over the season by the intensive transpiration of beech. The outputs of the balance model indicated a higher rate of actual evapotranspiration of beech and a higher rate of percolation of spruce every year. This effect was more pronounced over the dry years, whereas in years with sufficient rainfall the differences were minimal. Thus, the replacement of spruce trees by beech trees may affect the rate of groundwater recharge. Keywords: soil water balance; transpiration; percolation; land cover change; drought Fulltext is available at external website.
Kam a kolik vody odvádí stromy? Modelování vlivu smrkových a bukových porostů na toky vody v půdě během extrémních klimatických podmínek

Půdní vlhkost propojuje takové procesy, které ovlivňují celý hydrologický cyklus, a tím i dostupnost vodních zdrojů. Jedním z významných faktorů ovlivňující tyto procesy je přítomnost vegetace. Výzkum ...

Zelíková, Nikol; Šípek, Václav
Ústav pro hydrodynamiku, 2023

On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs
Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.
2023 - English
Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount ofshortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of betweenness centrality. In this contribution, wefocus on betweenness-uniform graphs with betweenness centrality below one. Wedisprove a conjecture about the existence of a BUG with betweenness valueαforany rational numberαfrom the interval (3/4,∞) by showing that only very few be-tweenness centrality values below 6/7 are attained for at least one BUG. Furthermore,among graphs with diameter at least three, there are no betweenness-uniform graphswith a betweenness centrality smaller than one. In graphs of smaller diameter, thesame can be shown under a uniformity condition on the components of the comple-ment. Available in digital repository of the ASCR
On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs

Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount ofshortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of ...

Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment
Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.
2023 - English
We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been chosen as a testing domain because solid validation campaign for PALM simulation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) over this quarter was documented in the past. The question of input data needed for such simulation and capability of the model to capture correctly the inlet profile and its turbulence structure provided by the wind-tunnel is discussed in the study The PALM dynamical core contains a solver for the Navier-Stokes equations. By default, the model uses the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach in which the bulk of the turbulent motions is explicitly resolved. It is well validated tool for simulations of the complex air-flow within the real urban canopy and also within its reduced scale provided by wind tunnel experiments. However the computed flow field between the testing buildings did not correspond well to the measured wind velocity in some points. Different setting of the inlet boundary condition was tested but none of them gave completely developed turbulent flow generated by vortex generators and castellated barrier wall place at the entrance of the aerodynamic section of the wind tunnel.\n Keywords: large eddy simulation; wind tunnel; atmospheric boundary layer; PALM model; turbulence Fulltext is available at external website.
Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment

We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been ...

Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Zapojení rašelinišť do odtoku z povodí
Vlček, Lukáš; Falátková, Kristýna
2023 - Czech
Příspěvek se věnuje hydrologickému režimu povodí, kde rašeliniště tvoří přibližně polovinu rozlohy. Pomocí modelu byly hodnoceny hydrologické procesy v rašeliništi a okolním lese. Z výsledků vyplývá, že rašeliniště výrazně zvyšuje fluktuaci vodního režimu místních toků. Vodní bilance zase ukazuje snížený ochalozovací efekt rašelinišť bez stromového patra oproti lesům na organominerální půdě. Revitalizace rašelinišť tak může mít kromě pozitivního ekologického aspektu negativní hydroogický dopad na okolní krajinu a místní toky. This research focuses on the basin's hydrological regime, where peatlands make up approximately half of the area. Hydrological processes in the peat bog and the surrounding forest were evaluated using the HBV model. The results show that the peatlands significantly increase the water regime fluctuation of local streams. Moreover, water balance shows a lower cooling effect of tree-less peat bogs than forests on organo-mineral soils. Except for a positive ecological aspect, peatland restoration can have a negative hydrological impact on the surrounding landscape and local streams. Keywords: water balance; peat bog; runoff formation Fulltext is available at external website.
Zapojení rašelinišť do odtoku z povodí

Příspěvek se věnuje hydrologickému režimu povodí, kde rašeliniště tvoří přibližně polovinu rozlohy. Pomocí modelu byly hodnoceny hydrologické procesy v rašeliništi a okolním lese. Z výsledků vyplývá, ...

Vlček, Lukáš; Falátková, Kristýna
Ústav pro hydrodynamiku, 2023

Časová proměnlivost hydraulických vlastností půdy a jejich vliv na odhad půdní vlhkosti
Šípek, Václav; Vlček, Lukáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Zelíková, Nikol; Hnilica, Jan
2023 - Czech
Půdní vlhkost hraje významnou roli v hydrologickém cyklu, protože zásadně ovlivňuje proudění vody v systému voda-půda-rostlina. Studie je zaměřena na celoroční odhad nasycení půdního profilu vodou v zalesněném horském území s využitím jednoduchého modelu založenému na konceptu lineární nádrže. Studie je založena na terénním měření nasycené hydraulické vodivosti a zavedení periodické funkce nasycené hydraulické vodivosti do modelu půdní vlhkosti, která možní její sezónní proměnlivost. \nPrůměrná nasycená hydraulická vodivost měřená jednoválcovým infiltrometrem byla v průběhu dvou let vždy vyšší ve vegetačním období, kdy se pohybovala od 33,6 do 44,8 cm hod-1, oproti zimním období, kdy poklesla do rozmezí 13,2 až 22,3 cm hod-1. Do modelu půdní vlhkosti byla implementována funkce, která umožnila spojitou změnu nasycené hydraulické vodivosti s maximem ve vegetační sezóně a minimum v zimním období. Tato modifikace modelu půdní vlhkosti vedla k poklesu průměrné čtvercové chyby odhadu půdní vlhkosti o 33,2 % (z 0,034 cm3cm-3 na 0,023 cm3cm-3) a nárůstu hodnoty Nash-Sutcliffova koeficientu z 0,34 na 0,68. Výsledky studie přispějí k přesnějšímu celoročnímu odhadu půdní vlhkosti, a tedy i ke zlepšení dlouhodobých simulací vlivu klimatické změny na dostupnost vodních zdrojů.\n The study was focused on the temporal variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity in an experimental plot covered by spruce forest and investigated benefits of its incorporation into soil water balance model. The results showed that the higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (33.6-44.8 cm hr-1) was observed in summer period compared to lower values (13.2-22.3 cm hr-1) in the winter period. The use of seasonally variabile saturated hydraulic conductivity improved the efficiency of soil water balance model in terms of lower root mean square error between observed and simulated volumetric soil water content by 33.2 %. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient rose from 0.34 to 0.68. Keywords: soil moisture; soil hydraulic properties; saturated hydraulic conductivity; climate change Fulltext is available at external website.
Časová proměnlivost hydraulických vlastností půdy a jejich vliv na odhad půdní vlhkosti

Půdní vlhkost hraje významnou roli v hydrologickém cyklu, protože zásadně ovlivňuje proudění vody v systému voda-půda-rostlina. Studie je zaměřena na celoroční odhad nasycení půdního profilu vodou v ...

Šípek, Václav; Vlček, Lukáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Zelíková, Nikol; Hnilica, Jan
Ústav pro hydrodynamiku, 2023

GA 19-07635S: Outputs and Results
Rehák, Branislav
2023 - English
This manuscript aims to deliver a survey of results obtained during the solution of the project No. GA19-07635S of the Czech Science Foundation. The timespan dedicated to the work on this project was 1.3.2019 - 30.6.2022. The main area dealt with were\nnonlinear multi-agent systems and their synchronization, further, attention was paid to some auxiliary results in the area of nonlinear observers. This Report briefly introduces the Project, provides a summary of the results obtained and also sketches an outline how these results will be applied and extended in future. Keywords: multi-agent systems; nonlinear multi-agent systems; synchronization Fulltext is available at external website.
GA 19-07635S: Outputs and Results

This manuscript aims to deliver a survey of results obtained during the solution of the project No. GA19-07635S of the Czech Science Foundation. The timespan dedicated to the work on this project was ...

Rehák, Branislav
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2023

On the development of a numerical model for the simulation of air flow in the human airways
Lancmanová, Anna; Bodnár, Tomáš; Sequeira, A.
2023 - English
This contribution reports on an ongoing study focusing on reduced order models for incompressible viscous fluid flow in two dimensional channels. A finite difference solver was developed using a simple implementation of the immersed boundary method to represent the channel geometry. The solver was validated for unsteady flow by comparing the obtained two-dimensional numerical solutions with analytical profiles computed from the Womersley solution. Finally the 2D model was coupled to a simple 1D extension simulating the flow in axisymmetric elastic vessel (tube). Some of the coupling principles and implementation issues are discussed in detail. Keywords: reduced order model; incompressible Navier-Stokes equations; finite difference approximation; coupling method Available in digital repository of the ASCR
On the development of a numerical model for the simulation of air flow in the human airways

This contribution reports on an ongoing study focusing on reduced order models for incompressible viscous fluid flow in two dimensional channels. A finite difference solver was developed using a ...

Lancmanová, Anna; Bodnár, Tomáš; Sequeira, A.
Matematický ústav, 2023

MAD UFOs: Magnetically Arrested Discs with persistent Ultra-Fast Outflows
Suková, Petra; Zajaček, M.; Karas, Vladimír
2023 - English
We study an outflow that develops in the MAD state in 3D GRMHD simulations. We show that the outflow can be accelerated to\nrelativistic velocities and persist over the course of our simulation. We compare the properties of the outflow from MAD discs with those launched by orbiting secondary at close orbit. The main difference is that the orbiting body launches a more coherent, quasiperiodic ultrafast outflow at lower velocities (v < 0.5c) while the outflow launched in the MAD state (without the body) has a stochastic behaviour and has anapproximately flat velocity distribution between lower anf higher outflow velocities, 0.2c < v < 0.3c and v > 0.5c. Keywords: accretion discs; black holes; active galactic nuclei Fulltext is available at external website.
MAD UFOs: Magnetically Arrested Discs with persistent Ultra-Fast Outflows

We study an outflow that develops in the MAD state in 3D GRMHD simulations. We show that the outflow can be accelerated to\nrelativistic velocities and persist over the course of our simulation. We ...

Suková, Petra; Zajaček, M.; Karas, Vladimír
Astronomický ústav, 2023

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