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Outputs and Results
Rehák, Branislav
2023 - English
This manuscript aims to deliver a survey of results obtained during the solution of the project No. GA19-07635S of the Czech Science Foundation. The timespan dedicated to the work on this project was 1.3.2019 - 30.6.2022. The main area dealt with were\nnonlinear multi-agent systems and their synchronization, further, attention was paid to some auxiliary results in the area of nonlinear observers. This Report briefly introduces the Project, provides a summary of the results obtained and also sketches an outline how these results will be applied and extended in future. Keywords: multi-agent systems; nonlinear multi-agent systems; synchronization Fulltext is available at external website.
Outputs and Results

This manuscript aims to deliver a survey of results obtained during the solution of the project No. GA19-07635S of the Czech Science Foundation. The timespan dedicated to the work on this project was ...

Rehák, Branislav
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2023

Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace
Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
2022 - Czech
Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. Mezi žáky s trojkou chce na VŠ jen 39 %. Mezi základními školami panují v přísnosti známkování velké rozdíly. Klasifikace žáků se stejnými akademickými výsledky se mezi školami liší v průměru o celý klasifikační stupeň. Při stejných dovednostech mají žáci z přísně známkujících škol nižší studijní ambice oproti žákům z mírně známkujících škol. Známky na vysvědčení také často představují jedno z přijímacích kritérií na středních školách a víceletých gymnáziích. Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování a zásadní role známek při plánování budoucí vzdělávací dráhy mohou tedy vést k chybným rozhodnutím žáků a rodičů, neefektivitám ve vzdělávacím systému a k suboptimální alokaci talentů. For students and their parents, school grades are a key piece of information that helps to shape educational and career ambitions. We find that 87% of Czech ninth graders with an A in mathematics want to go to university. Among students with a C, only 39% have the same aspiration. There is wide variation in the strictness of grading across Czech primary schools. On average, grades awarded can differ by as much as a full letter grade between stricter and more moderately grading schools. Even when they in fact have measurably equivalent skills, students from schools that grade more strictly have lower academic aspirations than students from schools that grade more moderately. Grades on report cards are also often among the admissions criteria for secondary schools and high schools. Differences in the strictness of grading and the crucial roles of grades in planning future educational paths can therefore lead to misguided decisions by students and parents, inefficiencies in the education system, and suboptimal allocation of talent. Keywords: primary schools; school grades; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace

Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. ...

Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Is longer maternal care always beneficial? The impact of a four-year paid parental leave
Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
2022 - English
We study the impact of an extension of paid family leave from 3 to 4 years on child long-term outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences design and comparing the first-affected with the last-unaffected cohorts of children, we find that an additional year of maternal care at the age of 3, which primarily crowded out enrollment into public kindergartens, had an adverse effect for children of loweducated mothers on human capital investments and labor-market attachment in early adulthood. The affected children were 12 p.p. more likely not to be in education, employment, or training (NEET) at the age of 21-22. The impact on daughters was larger and driven by a lower probability of attending college and higher probability of home production. Sons of low-educated mothers, on the other hand, were less likely to be employed. The results suggest that exposure to formal childcare may be more beneficial than all-day maternal care at the age of 3, especially for children with a lower socio-economic background. Keywords: family leave; maternal care; subsidized childcare Fulltext is available at external website.
Is longer maternal care always beneficial? The impact of a four-year paid parental leave

We study the impact of an extension of paid family leave from 3 to 4 years on child long-term outcomes. Using a difference-in-differences design and comparing the first-affected with the ...

Bičáková, Alena; Kalíšková, Klára
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM
Šlouf, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa; Strachota, Beata; Strachota, Adam; Nebesářová, Jana; Týč, Jiří; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Skoupý, Radim
2022 - English
The report contains the detailed analysis of novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM. Keywords: novel embedding resins; 3D-SEM microscopy; higher e-beam resistance Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM

The report contains the detailed analysis of novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM.

Šlouf, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa; Strachota, Beata; Strachota, Adam; Nebesářová, Jana; Týč, Jiří; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Skoupý, Radim
Ústav makromolekulární chemie, 2022

Proximity to help matters: the effect of access to centers of legal aid on bankruptcy rates
Hrehová, Kristína; Domonkos, Š.
2022 - English
Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its underuse by eligible debtors. Using a large administrative dataset of personal bankruptcies, we study the impact of spatial distance from public Centers for Legal Aid (CLAs) on the regional incidence of personal bankruptcy in Slovakia. We avoid endogeneity by focusing on the increased availability of legal aid controlling for the expected\ndistance from the nearest CLA, which serves as the first contact point in the process of filing for personal bankruptcy in the Slovak Republic. Distance from these legal aid centers has a significant impact on personal bankruptcy rates: the closer the nearest CLA is, the larger the prevalence of personal bankruptcy is in a given municipality. We quantify the impact of service access on personal bankruptcy rates, showing that improved access to free legal aid has both a statistically and substantively significant impact on the use of personal bankruptcy by the public. At the end of the almost 3-year-long period analyzed, municipalities with good access to CLAs had 3.3 bankruptcies more per 1,000 inhabitants than municipalities with weak access to CLAs. This effect is significant, as the average national bankruptcy rate until December 2019 reached 6.3 bankruptcies per 1,000 persons. Keywords: personal bankruptcy; insolvency; policy analysis Fulltext is available at external website.
Proximity to help matters: the effect of access to centers of legal aid on bankruptcy rates

Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its ...

Hrehová, Kristína; Domonkos, Š.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Vysokonapěťový pulzní zdroj a řídící jednotka
Gruber, Jan; Janovec, Jiří; Šonský, Jiří; Němec, Tomáš
2022 - Czech
Zpráva obsahuje popis sestavy vysokonapěťového pulzního zdroje (PPSU) a řídící jednotky (SPCU), které jsou využívány v kombinaci s výbojovou komorou a párem elektrod k aerosolové syntéze nanomateriálů. Uvedena jsou schémata zapojení, seznam elektronických i mechanických součástek, jakožto i popis konektorů a zřetězeného propojení více soustav. Zpráva rovněž obsahuje informace o referenčních parametrech výbojů a popis komunikačního protokolu včetně nastavitelných proměnných. The report contains description of Pulsed Power Source Unit (PPSU) and Spark Control Unit (SPCU), which are utilized in combination with Spark Discharge Chamber and pair of electrodes for aerosol synthesis of nanomaterials. The report includes electronic schematics, list of components, description of connectors and way to chain-link and operate more sets of units. The report also includes information about discharge reference parameters and description of communication protocol and its variables. Keywords: electrotechnics; high-voltage; power transformation; pulse generators Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Vysokonapěťový pulzní zdroj a řídící jednotka

Zpráva obsahuje popis sestavy vysokonapěťového pulzního zdroje (PPSU) a řídící jednotky (SPCU), které jsou využívány v kombinaci s výbojovou komorou a párem elektrod k aerosolové syntéze ...

Gruber, Jan; Janovec, Jiří; Šonský, Jiří; Němec, Tomáš
Ústav termomechaniky, 2022

Důvěra vybraným politikům v mezinárodním kontextu – listopad/prosinec 2021
Červenka, Jan
2022 - Czech
V listopadovém a prosincovém šetření, které se uskutečnilo v rámci kontinuálního výzkumu veřejného mínění CVVM, byla respondentům položena otázka zjišťující důvěru k vybraným politikům v mezinárodním kontextu. Nejvyšší podíl důvěry šetření ukázalo u Z. Čaputové (64 %), nejvíce nedůvěřujících bylo u V. Putina (70 %). Oproti listopadu 2019 zřetelně vzrostla důvěra v případě B. Johnsona, A. Merkelové, Z. Čaputové a E. Macrona. November and December 2021 survey focused on attitudes of Czechs to some representatives in international politics. Respondents were asked to express their confidence or non-confidence in some main figures of international policy and persons involved in recent important events as well as supreme representatives of Central European countries. Keywords: international politics; Central European countries; representatives Fulltext is available at external website.
Důvěra vybraným politikům v mezinárodním kontextu – listopad/prosinec 2021

V listopadovém a prosincovém šetření, které se uskutečnilo v rámci kontinuálního výzkumu veřejného mínění CVVM, byla respondentům položena otázka zjišťující důvěru k vybraným politikům v mezinárodním ...

Červenka, Jan
Sociologický ústav, 2022

Information, perceived returns and college major choices
Kudashvili, Nikoloz; Todua, Gega
2022 - English
Students may hold inaccurate beliefs about earnings and employment opportunities when making their education decisions. This paper analyzes the effects of information provision on student’s intended and actual college major choices in Georgia. Secondary school students in our experiment systematically overestimated the earnings and unemployment rates of college graduates. We find that 10 percent more students who received information on actual earnings and unemployment changed their actual college major choices than others. The changes in their majors are partly driven by differences in the perceived and actual unemployment rates, whereas the earning differences do not appear to play a role. We also estimate spillover effects on students who do not receive information directly, and show that they matter, but only for older students who are closer to high school graduation. Importantly, we find that the immediate changes in the intended choices are not linked to the final major choices, suggesting that measuring the effects of information on immediately expressed intentions may not be sufficient to understand how information affects actual real-life decisions. We find that both direct and indirect information provision have sizable effects on student college major choices. Keywords: college major; perceived unemployment; perceived earnings Fulltext is available at external website.
Information, perceived returns and college major choices

Students may hold inaccurate beliefs about earnings and employment opportunities when making their education decisions. This paper analyzes the effects of information provision on student’s intended ...

Kudashvili, Nikoloz; Todua, Gega
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Social networks and surviving the Holocaust
Bělín, M.; Jelínek, T.; Jurajda, Štěpán
2022 - English
Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the formation of close friendships with other prisoners. We provide statistical evidence consistent with these fundamentally selective testimonies. We study the survival of the 140 thousand Jews who entered the Theresienstadt ghetto, where 33 thousand died and from where over 80 thousand were sent to extermination camps. We ask whether an individual’s social status prior to deportation, and the availability of potential friends among fellow prisoners influenced the risk of death in Theresienstadt, the ability to avoid transports to the camps, and the chances of surviving Auschwitz. Pre-deportation social status protected prisoners in the self-administered society of the Theresienstadt ghetto, but it was no longer helpful in the extreme conditions of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. Relying on multiple proxies of pre-existing social networks, we uncover a significant survival advantage to entering Auschwitz with a group of potential friends. Keywords: social status; social networks; Holocaust survival Fulltext is available at external website.
Social networks and surviving the Holocaust

Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the formation of close friendships with other prisoners. We provide statistical evidence consistent with ...

Bělín, M.; Jelínek, T.; Jurajda, Štěpán
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

Do pessimistic expectations about discrimination make minorities withdraw their effort? Causal evidence
Korlyakova, Darya
2022 - English
There is a long-standing concern that expected discrimination discourages minorities from exercising effort to succeed. Effort withdrawal could contribute to confirming negative stereotypes about minorities’ productivity and enduring disparities. This paper extends the findings of correlational research by exogenously manipulating individuals’ beliefs about discrimination against their group and exploring a causal link between perceived discrimination and individuals’ labor market behavior. For this purpose, we conduct an online experiment in the US with a diverse sample of 2,000 African Americans. We randomly assign individuals to two groups and inform one group about the frequency of discrimination against African Americans in a previous survey. To study the information effects on effort,\nwe subsequently measure participants’ results on a math task. We document that most individuals initially overestimate discrimination against African Americans. The overestimation decreases strongly and significantly as a result of information provision. At the same time, treated individuals, males in particular, attempt and solve correctly fewer math problems compared to untreated individuals. Hence, our findings do not support the common concern that minorities’ inflated expectations about discrimination induce them to underperform. Keywords: perceived discrimination; racial minorities; effort Fulltext is available at external website.
Do pessimistic expectations about discrimination make minorities withdraw their effort? Causal evidence

There is a long-standing concern that expected discrimination discourages minorities from exercising effort to succeed. Effort withdrawal could contribute to confirming negative stereotypes about ...

Korlyakova, Darya
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

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