Number of found documents: 55
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PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND EVOLUTION OF AEROSOL FROM OPEN COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS DURING THE TRADITIONAL “BURNING OF THE WITCHES”
Mbengue, Saliou; Vodička, Petr; Komínková, Kateřina; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Vítková, Gabriela; Windell, Laurence Christian; Suchánková, Lenka; Lhotka, Radek; Julaha, Kajal; Prokeš, Roman; Šmejkalová Holubová, A.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Holoubek, Ivan
2023 - English
Open biomass burning (OBB) is a major source releasing large quantities of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the atmosphere, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate (Andreae, 2019, Chen et al., 2017). OBB aerosols mainly consist of carbonaceous matter, and a considerable amount of inorganic salts, which present distinctly different optical properties (Chen et al., 2017, Reid et al., 2005). In this study, we investigate the influence of OBB during the traditional Burning of the Witches (BoW), referred to in Czech as “Pálení čarodějnic”, on the physico-chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols collected at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK). The BoW is a centuries-old pagan tradition very popular in the Czech Republic. Today, it is celebrated during the night from April 30 to May 1 by lighting bonfires made of woodpiles with fake witches. Keywords: biomass burning; air pollution; size distribution; atmospheric ageing Available in digital repository of the ASCR
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND EVOLUTION OF AEROSOL FROM OPEN COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS DURING THE TRADITIONAL “BURNING OF THE WITCHES”

Open biomass burning (OBB) is a major source releasing large quantities of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the atmosphere, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health ...

Mbengue, Saliou; Vodička, Petr; Komínková, Kateřina; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Vítková, Gabriela; Windell, Laurence Christian; Suchánková, Lenka; Lhotka, Radek; Julaha, Kajal; Prokeš, Roman; Šmejkalová Holubová, A.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Holoubek, Ivan
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2023

PM1 UNDER THE MICROSCOPE: MULTI-ANNUAL AEROSOL OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND SIZE DISTIRBUTION OBSERVATION AT PERI-URBAN ATMOSPHERIC SITE ATOLL
Suchánková, Lenka; Bourrianne, E.; De Fillipi, R.; De Brito, J. F.; Riffault, V.; Prokeš, Roman; Holoubek, Ivan; Ždímal, V.; Crumeyrolle, S.
2023 - English
Atmospheric aerosols (AA) belong to short-lived climate forcers with high spatial and temporal variability. Although the radiative effects of AA are greatest on regional scales, changes in aerosol emissions can induce long-term global climate effects (Szopa et al., 2021). Thus, the measurement of aerosol properties is essential for better understanding of aerosol’s impact on health and climate. Although several international projects and platforms have been monitoring AA properties worldwide (GAW, WMO, ACTRIS, EMEP, EUCAARI, etc., Pandolfi et al., 2018), only PM10 or PM2.5 cutoff sizes have been used for measurements, and information about PM1 particles is missing. \nThe aim of this study is to present aerosol scattering properties with supporting data of absorption and particle number size distribution in PM1 in years 2018-2022 at peri-urban atmospheric site “Atmospheric Observations in LiLLE (ATOLL) in Lille, France. This study is the first to present results dedicated to aerosol scattering properties at this site. Keywords: pm1; scattering coefficient; nephelometer; fossil fuel and biomass burning contribution; aethalometer; smps Available in digital repository of the ASCR
PM1 UNDER THE MICROSCOPE: MULTI-ANNUAL AEROSOL OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND SIZE DISTIRBUTION OBSERVATION AT PERI-URBAN ATMOSPHERIC SITE ATOLL

Atmospheric aerosols (AA) belong to short-lived climate forcers with high spatial and temporal variability. Although the radiative effects of AA are greatest on regional scales, changes in aerosol ...

Suchánková, Lenka; Bourrianne, E.; De Fillipi, R.; De Brito, J. F.; Riffault, V.; Prokeš, Roman; Holoubek, Ivan; Ždímal, V.; Crumeyrolle, S.
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2023

Využití portálu Agrorisk.Cz – Systému včasné výstrahy před negativními dopady počasí do zemědělství
Žalud, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Eva; Klem, Karel; Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Zahradníček, Pavel; Štěpánek, Petr; Bláhová, Monika; Kudláčková, Lucie; Balek, Jan
2023 - Czech
Systém včasné výstrahy před negativními vlivy počasí nabízí na katastrální úrovni denně aktualizovaný popis abiotických a vybraných biotických rizik ohrožující polní produkci. Jeho součástí je jejich 9denní předpověď. Metodika je určena především agronomům, rostlinolékařům a zemědělským managerům, stejně jako vědeckým pracovníkům, zemědělským poradcům a zástupcům veřejné správy. The early warning system against negative weather effects offers a daily updated description of abiotic and selected biotic risks threatening field production at the cadastral level. It includes their 9-day forecast. The methodology is primarily intended for agronomists,plant doctors and agricultural managers, as well as scientists, agricultural consultants and representatives of public administration. Keywords: monitoring; economy; ecology; decision-making system; climate change; field crops; meteorological extremes; pests; diseases; forecasting Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Využití portálu Agrorisk.Cz – Systému včasné výstrahy před negativními dopady počasí do zemědělství

Systém včasné výstrahy před negativními vlivy počasí nabízí na katastrální úrovni denně aktualizovaný popis abiotických a vybraných biotických rizik ohrožující polní produkci. Jeho součástí je jejich ...

Žalud, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Eva; Klem, Karel; Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Zahradníček, Pavel; Štěpánek, Petr; Bláhová, Monika; Kudláčková, Lucie; Balek, Jan
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2023

Dendrochronology improves understanding of the charcoal production history, increasing the tourist potential in the Drahany Highlands
Rybníček, Michal; Bajer, A.; Friedl, M.; Knott, R.; Kočár, Petr; Kučera, A.; Novák, J.; Vavrčík, H.; Kolář, Tomáš
2022 - English
Over the last two years, three selected forest sites from Drahany Highlands were examined for traces of human activity. The most frequent traces found, and common to all three sites, were remains of charcoal production. This paper provides an anatomical and dendrochronological analysis of the charcoals found in two charcoal pile remains from each site. The species composition of the charcoals at the southern site was dominated by oak, followed by birch and hornbeam. Fir was more common than oak, beech, poplar, birch and hornbeam at the central site. Fir and beech were found at the northern site. By using dendrochronology, 23 fir, oak and beech charcoals were dated with the oldest sample coming from a central site and dated from the period 1753–1758. Charcoals from the three other charcoal piles fell into the first half of the 19th century. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals selected gave a very wide age range (1640–1955), except for one case (1399–1435). Providing information on the age of a charcoal pile can help raise public awareness and interest in viewing the sites where charcoal burners used to be active in the forests. Keywords: Charcoal pile; culture heritage; tourism; tree rings; wood species Fulltext is available at external website.
Dendrochronology improves understanding of the charcoal production history, increasing the tourist potential in the Drahany Highlands

Over the last two years, three selected forest sites from Drahany Highlands were examined for traces of human activity. The most frequent traces found, and common to all three sites, were remains of ...

Rybníček, Michal; Bajer, A.; Friedl, M.; Knott, R.; Kočár, Petr; Kučera, A.; Novák, J.; Vavrčík, H.; Kolář, Tomáš
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2022

Hodnocení a mapování kulturních ekosystémových služeb v krajině
Daněk, Jan; Slovák, L.; Daněk, T.; Pánek, J.; Schlossarek, M.
2022 - Czech
Souhrnná výzkumná zpráva shrnuje nejdůležitější poznatky z provedeného výzkumu zaměřeného na hodnocení a mapování kulturních ekosystémových služeb v krajině Summary research report presents the most important findings from the research focused on assessment and mapping of cultural ecosystem services in landscape. Keywords: cultural ecosystem services; participatory mappingcultural ecosystem services; intangible benefits of nature; participatory mapping; questionnaire survey; focus groups Fulltext is available at external website.
Hodnocení a mapování kulturních ekosystémových služeb v krajině

Souhrnná výzkumná zpráva shrnuje nejdůležitější poznatky z provedeného výzkumu zaměřeného na hodnocení a mapování kulturních ekosystémových služeb v krajině...

Daněk, Jan; Slovák, L.; Daněk, T.; Pánek, J.; Schlossarek, M.
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2022

The impact of covid-19 restrictions on carbonaceous aerosols at rural background site: importance of vertical distribution
Mbengue, Saliou; Vodička, Petr; Komínková, Kateřina; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Prokeš, Roman; Suchánková, Lenka; Julaha, Kajal; Ondráček, Jakub; Holoubek, Ivan; Ždímal, Vladimír
2022 - English
In this study, EC and OC at 4 m elevation and EC at 230 m elevation showed a similar \nseasonal pattern with higher values in winter and lower values in summer. OC, measured \nat 230 m height showed an opposite behavior with slightly higher values in spring and \nsummer, probably related to the increased contribution of secondary organic carbon \n(SOC). Concentrations were generally higher at 4 m, where there was also a better \ncorrelation between EC and OC, suggesting a greater influence of local sources near the \nsurface. Keywords: COVID-19; Vertical distribution; Organic – elemental carbon; Rural background site Available in a digital repository NRGL
The impact of covid-19 restrictions on carbonaceous aerosols at rural background site: importance of vertical distribution

In this study, EC and OC at 4 m elevation and EC at 230 m elevation showed a similar \nseasonal pattern with higher values in winter and lower values in summer. OC, measured \nat 230 m height showed ...

Mbengue, Saliou; Vodička, Petr; Komínková, Kateřina; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Prokeš, Roman; Suchánková, Lenka; Julaha, Kajal; Ondráček, Jakub; Holoubek, Ivan; Ždímal, Vladimír
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2022

Metodika podpory populací samotářských včel v agroekosystémech
Šlachta, Martin; Erban, T.; Votavová, A.; Cudlín, Ondřej; Cudlín, Pavel; Halešová, T.
2021 - Czech
Samotářské včely se podílí na opylování zemědělských plodin. Podle našich\nzjištění se v jarním období u nás jedná o 88 druhů samotářek, především\npískorypek (Andrenidae) a ploskočelek (Halictidae) hnízdících v zemi. Druhy\nhnízdící ve dřevě jsou zastoupené minimálně z důvodu nedostatku příležitostí\nk hnízdění a převážně letní hnízdní aktivity. Patří mezi ně i zednice (Osmia sp.),\nhnízdící na jaře a využívané v zahraničí k opylování ovocných stromů. Cílem\ntéto metodiky je poskytnout pěstitelům návod jak pomocí umělých hnízdišť\nvyužít zednice pro opylování ve svých sadech. Pro tento účel jsme navrhli vzor\nhnízdiště a metodiku chovu zednice rohaté, Osmia cornuta (Latreille, 1805),\nkterá je díky své časně jarní aktivitě vhodnou alternativou za dosud využívaného\nčmeláka zemního. Chov je možné doplnit o podobný druh zednici rezavou, O.\nbicornis (Linnaeus, 1758), s pozdější dobou hnízdní aktivity. Metodika obsahuje\ntaké doporučená opatření na podporu samotářek v krajině a prezentuje nová\nzjištění o diverzitě samotářek a o potravních preferencích zednic. Solitary bees participate in the pollination of crops. According to our field\nsurvey, this involves 88 species of solitary bees in spring, mainly mining bees\n(Andrenidae) and sweat bees (Halictidae) nesting in the soil. The species\nnesting above soil were present less due to the lack of nesting opportunities\nand generally summer nesting activity. Among them, mason bees (Osmia sp.),\nnesting in spring, are used abroad for the pollination of fruit trees. The aim of\nthis methodology is to provide farmers with instructions for the use of mason\nbees for pollination of orchards by means of artificial nesting sites. We propose\na convenient construction of nesting sites and the methodology for rearing the\nEuropean orchard bee, Osmia cornuta (Latreille, 1805), which is, due to its earlyspring nesting activity, a suitable substitute for the currently used buff-tailed\nbumblebee. Breeding can be supplemented by the red mason bee, O. bicornis\n(Linnaeus, 1758), with later nesting activity. The book contains also suggested\nmeasures to support solitary bees in the landscape and new research data on\nthe diversity of solitary bees and pollen preferences of mason bees. Keywords: mason bees; pollination; osmia cornuta; osmia bicornis; solitary bees; orchard Fulltext is available at external website.
Metodika podpory populací samotářských včel v agroekosystémech

Samotářské včely se podílí na opylování zemědělských plodin. Podle našich\nzjištění se v jarním období u nás jedná o 88 druhů samotářek, především\npískorypek (Andrenidae) a ploskočelek ...

Šlachta, Martin; Erban, T.; Votavová, A.; Cudlín, Ondřej; Cudlín, Pavel; Halešová, T.
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2021

Short-term application of elevated temperature and drought influences the isotopic composition of winter wheat grains
Pernicová, Natálie; Urban, Otmar; Čáslavský, Josef; Klem, Karel; Trnka, Miroslav
2021 - English
The study aimed to determine the differences in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios in grains of three winter wheat varieties grown under optimal and stress conditions. We found that the wheat variety has a significant effect on both δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios. Short-term (nine days) exposure to drought and high temperature during the heading or stem extension development phase significantly enhanced δ13C values, but only high temperature affected δ15N values. Enhanced δ15N values support the assumption that global warming causes a higher representation of the 15N isotope in plants. Moreover, significant interactive effects of temperature and water availability on the values of both isotopes were found implying that C and N metabolisms have been altered under the investigated stress conditions. We conclude that δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios of cereal grains are sensitive indicators of stress conditions, even short-term ones Keywords: wheat; grain; 13C; 15N; drought; high temperature Fulltext is available at external website.
Short-term application of elevated temperature and drought influences the isotopic composition of winter wheat grains

The study aimed to determine the differences in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios in grains of three winter wheat varieties grown under optimal and stress conditions. We found ...

Pernicová, Natálie; Urban, Otmar; Čáslavský, Josef; Klem, Karel; Trnka, Miroslav
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2021

Yield formation parameters of winter wheat under two CO2 levels in water sufficient and depleted environment
Hlaváčová, Marcela; Klem, Karel; Veselá, Barbora; Findurová, Hana; Hlavinka, Petr; Smutná, P.; Horáková, V.; Škarpa, P.; Trnka, Miroslav
2021 - English
Agricultural production faces with ongoing climate that in Europe takes form of changing seasonal precipitation pattern with more frequent drought spells. These changes come on top of rising air temperature and did and will affect productivity as well as onset and duration of key developmental stages for yield formation of major staple crops such as wheat. In order to ensure stable agricultural production and satisfy demand of the increasing humanpopulation, it is crucial to know responses of major field crops to these abiotic stress factors to assess suitability of genotypes to specific environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate final yield formation parameters of five winter wheat genotypes cultivated in pots and exposed to two different levels of CO2 concentrations (400 ppm as ambient and 700 ppm as elevated CO2 concentrations) and two water treatments (well- watered control and drought-stressed plants). Theexperimental treatments were set up in growth chambers from the end of heading stage (BBCH 59)to the beginning of ripening stage (BBCH 71) to simulate the conditions under future climate. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration led to: (1) mitigation of reduction in final yield formation parameters of drought-stressed plants compared to those of control, (2) enhanced results of drought-stressed treatments compared to those of drought-stressed treatments exposed to the ambient CO2 concentration. Pannonia NS was found out as the less responsive genotype to the exposition of CO2 concentration (no statistically significant differences among ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in all yield formation parameters were identified). On contrary, harvest index of genotype Bohemia was identified as the most sensitive parameter in response to drought stress as well as to the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Keywords: drought stress; elevated co2; triticum aestivum; growth chambe; yield formation parameters Fulltext is available at external website.
Yield formation parameters of winter wheat under two CO2 levels in water sufficient and depleted environment

Agricultural production faces with ongoing climate that in Europe takes form of changing seasonal precipitation pattern with more frequent drought spells. These changes come on top of rising air ...

Hlaváčová, Marcela; Klem, Karel; Veselá, Barbora; Findurová, Hana; Hlavinka, Petr; Smutná, P.; Horáková, V.; Škarpa, P.; Trnka, Miroslav
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2021

Atmospheric CO2 concentration, light intensity and nitrogen nutrition affect spring barley response to drought and heat stress
Findurová, Hana; Veselá, Barbora; Opoku, Emmanuel; Klem, Karel
2021 - English
The aim of this study was to compare physiological responses of two spring barley varieties,\ndiffering in their oxidative stress tolerance, to drought and heat stress after pre-treatment under different\nirradiation regimes, CO2 concentrations, and nitrogen fertilisation levels. High light intensity, elevated\nCO2, and additional UV radiation increased flavonoid accumulation. Moreover, more flavonoids were\ninduced in oxidative stress-sensitive variety Barke. Combined drought and heat stress caused a large\ndecline in CO2 assimilation, whereas heat stress alone caused only minor changes. Under combined\nstress, plants grown under low light intensity and no UV irradiation performed the best despite their\nhigher initial water use efficiency and lower flavonoids content. Keywords: flavonoids; co2 assimilation; water use-efficiency; barke; bojos Fulltext is available at external website.
Atmospheric CO2 concentration, light intensity and nitrogen nutrition affect spring barley response to drought and heat stress

The aim of this study was to compare physiological responses of two spring barley varieties,\ndiffering in their oxidative stress tolerance, to drought and heat stress after pre-treatment under ...

Findurová, Hana; Veselá, Barbora; Opoku, Emmanuel; Klem, Karel
Ústav výzkumu globální změny , 2021

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