**812**

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**Application Of Implicitly Weighted Regression Quantiles: Analysis Of The 2018 Czech Presidential Election**

Kalina, Jan; Vidnerová, Petra

2021 - English
Regression quantiles can be characterized as popular tools for a complex modeling of a continuous response variable conditioning on one or more given independent variables. Because they are however vulnerable to leverage points in the regression model, an alternative approach denoted as implicitly weighted regression quantiles have been proposed. The aim of current work is to apply them to the results of the second round of the 2018 presidential election in the Czech Republic. The election results are modeled as a response of 4 demographic or economic predictors over the 77 Czech counties. The analysis represents the first application of the implicitly weighted regression quantiles to data with more than one regressor. The results reveal the implicitly weighted regression quantiles to be indeed more robust with respect to leverage points compared to standard regression quantiles. If however the model does not contain leverage points, both versions of the regression quantiles yield very similar results. Thus, the election dataset serves here as an illustration of the usefulness of the implicitly weighted regression quantiles.
Keywords:
*linear regression; quantile regression; robustness; outliers; elections results*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Application Of Implicitly Weighted Regression Quantiles: Analysis Of The 2018 Czech Presidential Election

Regression quantiles can be characterized as popular tools for a complex modeling of a continuous response variable conditioning on one or more given independent variables. Because they are however ...

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**Nearly All Reals Can Be Sorted with Linear Time Complexity**

Jiřina, Marcel

2021 - English
We propose a variant of the counting sort modified for sorting reals in a linear time. It is assumed that the sorting key and pointers to the items being sorted are moved and individual items remain at the same place in the memory (in place sorting). In this case, the space complexity of the new variant of the algorithm is the same as the complexity of the quicksort. We also quantify the practical limits for possible sorting reals in a linear time. This possibility is assured under additional assumptions on the distribution of the sorting key, mainly the independence and identity of the distribution. Here we give a more general criteria easily applicable in practice. We also show that the algorithm is applicable for data that do not fulfill criteria for linear time complexity but even that the computation is faster than the system quicksort. A new, faster version of the algorithm is attached.
Keywords:
*sorting; algorithm; real sorting key; time complexity; linear complexity*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Nearly All Reals Can Be Sorted with Linear Time Complexity

We propose a variant of the counting sort modified for sorting reals in a linear time. It is assumed that the sorting key and pointers to the items being sorted are moved and individual items remain ...

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**Multifractal approaches in econometrics and fractal-inspired robust regression**

Kalina, Jan

2021 - English
While the mainstream economic theory is based on the concept of general economic equilibrium, the economies throughout the world have recently been facing serious transformations and challenges. Thus, instead of a convergence to equilibrium, the economies can be regarded as unstable, turbulent or chaotic with properties characteristic for fractal or multifractal processes. This paper starts with a discussion of recent data analysis tools inspired by fractal or multifractal concepts. We pay special attention to available data analysis tools based on reciprocal weights assigned to individual observations - these are inspired by an assumed fractal structure of multivariate data. As an extension, we consider here a novel version of the least weighted squares estimator of parameters for the linear regression model, which exploits reciprocal weights. Finally, we perform a statistical analysis of 31 datasets with economic motivation and compare the performance of the least weighted squares estimator with various weights. It turns out that the reciprocal weights, inspired by the fractal theory, are not superior to other choices of weights. In fact, the best prediction results are obtained with trimmed linear weights.
Keywords:
*chaos in economics; fractal market hypothesis; reciprocal weights; robust regression; prediction*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Multifractal approaches in econometrics and fractal-inspired robust regression

While the mainstream economic theory is based on the concept of general economic equilibrium, the economies throughout the world have recently been facing serious transformations and challenges. Thus, ...

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**On kernel-based nonlinear regression estimation**

Kalina, Jan; Vidnerová, Petra

2021 - English
This paper is devoted to two important kernel-based tools of nonlinear regression: the Nadaraya-Watson estimator, which can be characterized as a successful statistical method in various econometric applications, and regularization networks, which represent machine learning tools very rarely used in econometric modeling. This paper recalls both approaches and describes their common features as well as differences. For the Nadaraya-Watson estimator, we explain its connection to the conditional expectation of the response variable. Our main contribution is numerical analysis of suitable data with an economic motivation and a comparison of the two nonlinear regression tools. Our computations reveal some tools for the Nadaraya-Watson in R software to be unreliable, others not prepared for a routine usage. On the other hand, the regression modeling by means of regularization networks is much simpler and also turns out to be more reliable in our examples. These also bring unique evidence revealing the need for a careful choice of the parameters of regularization networks
Keywords:
*nonlinear regression; machine learning; kernel smoothing; regularization; regularization networks*
Available in digital repository of the ASCR
On kernel-based nonlinear regression estimation

This paper is devoted to two important kernel-based tools of nonlinear regression: the Nadaraya-Watson estimator, which can be characterized as a successful statistical method in various econometric ...

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**Least Weighted Absolute Value Estimator with an Application to Investment Data**

Vidnerová, Petra; Kalina, Jan

2020 - English
While linear regression represents the most fundamental model in current econometrics, the least squares (LS) estimator of its parameters is notoriously known to be vulnerable to the presence of outlying measurements (outliers) in the data. The class of M-estimators, thoroughly investigated since the groundbreaking work by Huber in 1960s, belongs to the classical robust estimation methodology (Jurečková et al., 2019). M-estimators are nevertheless not robust with respect to leverage points, which are defined as values outlying on the horizontal axis (i.e. outlying in one or more regressors). The least trimmed squares estimator seems therefore a more suitable highly robust method, i.e. with a high breakdown point (Rousseeuw & Leroy, 1987). Its version with weights implicitly assigned to individual observations, denoted as the least weighted squares estimator, was proposed and investigated in Víšek (2011). A trimmed estimator based on the 𝐿1-norm is available as the least trimmed absolute value estimator (Hawkins & Olive, 1999), which has not however acquired attention of practical econometricians. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, its version with weights implicitly assigned to individual observations seems to be still lacking.
Keywords:
*robust regression; regression median; implicit weighting; computational aspects; nonparametric bootstrap*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Least Weighted Absolute Value Estimator with an Application to Investment Data

While linear regression represents the most fundamental model in current econometrics, the least squares (LS) estimator of its parameters is notoriously known to be vulnerable to the presence of ...

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**On the Effect of Human Resources on Tourist Infrastructure: New Ideas on Heteroscedastic Modeling Using Regression Quantiles**

Kalina, Jan; Janáček, Patrik

2020 - English
Tourism represents an important sector of the economy in many countries around the world. In this work, we are interested in the effect of the Human Resources and Labor Market pillar of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index on tourist service infrastructure across 141 countries of the world. A regression analysis requires to handle heteroscedasticity in these data, which is not an uncommon situation in various available human capital studies. Our first task is focused on testing significance of individual variables in the model. It is illustrated here that significance tests are influenced by heteroscedasticity, which remains true also for tests for regression quantiles or robust regression estimators, resistant to a possible contamination of data by outliers. Only if a suitable model is considered, which takes heteroscedasticity into account, the effect of the Human Resources and Labor Market pillar turns out to be significant. Further, we propose and present a new diagnostic tool denoted as aquintile plot, allowing to interpret immediately the heteroscedastic structure of the linear regression model for possibly contaminated data.
Keywords:
*tourism infrastructure; human resources; regression; robustness; regression quantiles*
Fulltext is available at external website.
On the Effect of Human Resources on Tourist Infrastructure: New Ideas on Heteroscedastic Modeling Using Regression Quantiles

Tourism represents an important sector of the economy in many countries around the world. In this work, we are interested in the effect of the Human Resources and Labor Market pillar of the Travel and ...

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**Two limited-memory optimization methods with minimum violation of the previous quasi-Newton equations**

Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav

2020 - English
Limited-memory variable metric methods based on the well-known BFGS update are widely used for large scale optimization. The block version of the BFGS update, derived by Schnabel (1983), Hu and Storey (1991) and Vlček and Lukšan (2019), satisfies the quasi-Newton equations with all used difference vectors and for quadratic objective functions gives the best improvement of convergence in some sense, but the corresponding direction vectors are not descent directions generally. To guarantee the descent property of direction vectors and simultaneously violate the quasi-Newton equations as little as possible in some sense, two methods based on the block BFGS update are proposed. They can be advantageously combined with methods based on vector corrections for conjugacy (Vlček and Lukšan, 2015). Global convergence of the proposed algorithm is established for convex and sufficiently smooth functions. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the new methods.
Keywords:
*unconstrained minimization; variable metric methods; limited-memory methods; variationally derived methods; global convergence; numerical results*
Available in a digital repository NRGL
Two limited-memory optimization methods with minimum violation of the previous quasi-Newton equations

Limited-memory variable metric methods based on the well-known BFGS update are widely used for large scale optimization. The block version of the BFGS update, derived by Schnabel (1983), Hu and Storey ...

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**Linear-time Algorithms for Largest Inscribed Quadrilateral**

Keikha, Vahideh

2020 - English
Let P be a convex polygon of n vertices. We present a linear-time algorithm for the problem of computing the largest-area inscribed quadrilateral of P. We also design the parallel version of the algorithm with O(log n) time and O(n) work in CREW PRAM model, which is quite work optimal. Our parallel algorithm also computes all the antipodal pairs of a convex polygon with O(log n) time and O(log2n+s) work, where s is the number of antipodal pairs, that we hope is of independent interest. We also discuss several approximation algorithms (both constant factor and approximation scheme) for computing the largest-inscribed k-gons for constant values of k, in both area and perimeter measures.
Keywords:
*Maximum-area quadrilateral; extreme area k-gon*
Available in a digital repository NRGL
Linear-time Algorithms for Largest Inscribed Quadrilateral

Let P be a convex polygon of n vertices. We present a linear-time algorithm for the problem of computing the largest-area inscribed quadrilateral of P. We also design the parallel version of the ...

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**Globální implicitní funkce**

Rohn, Jiří

2020 - Czech
Tento text pochází z roku 1973 a nebyl dosud zveřejněn. Jeho hlavním výsledkem je věta o existenci a jednoznačnosti globální implicitní funkce v Rn. Tomuto výsledku předchází řada pomocných tvrzení.
Keywords:
*silně lokální souvislé množiny; iredundantní pokrytí; pokračování implicitní funkce; existence a jednoznačnost; globální implicitní funkce; inverzní zobrazení*
Available in a digital repository NRGL
Globální implicitní funkce

Tento text pochází z roku 1973 a nebyl dosud zveřejněn. Jeho hlavním výsledkem je věta o existenci a jednoznačnosti globální implicitní funkce v Rn. Tomuto výsledku předchází řada pomocných tvrzení.

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**Regression for High-Dimensional Data: From Regularization to Deep Learning**

Kalina, Jan; Vidnerová, Petra

2020 - English
Regression modeling is well known as a fundamental task in current econometrics. However, classical estimation tools for the linear regression model are not applicable to highdimensional data. Although there is not an agreement about a formal definition of high dimensional data, usually these are understood either as data with the number of variables p exceeding (possibly largely) the number of observations n, or as data with a large p in the order of (at least) thousands. In both situations, which appear in various field including econometrics, the analysis of the data is difficult due to the so-called curse of dimensionality (cf. Kalina (2013) for discussion). Compared to linear regression, nonlinear regression modeling with an unknown shape of the relationship of the response on the regressors requires even more intricate methods.
Keywords:
*regression; neural networks; robustness; high-dimensional data; regularization*
Fulltext is available at external website.
Regression for High-Dimensional Data: From Regularization to Deep Learning

Regression modeling is well known as a fundamental task in current econometrics. However, classical estimation tools for the linear regression model are not applicable to highdimensional data. ...

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