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Some modifications of the limited-memory variable metric optimization methods
Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav
2023 - anglický
Several modifications of the limited-memory variable metric (or quasi-Newton) line search methods for large scale unconstrained optimization are investigated. First the block version of the symmetric rank-one (SR1) update formula is derived in a similar way as for the block BFGS update in Vlˇcek and Lukˇsan (Numerical Algorithms 2019). The block SR1 formula is then modified to obtain an update which can reduce the required number of arithmetic operations per iteration. Since it usually violates the corresponding secant conditions, this update is combined with the shifting investigated in Vlˇcek and Lukˇsan (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2006). Moreover, a new efficient way how to realize the limited-memory shifted BFGS method is proposed. For a class of methods based on the generalized shifted economy BFGS update, global convergence is established. A numerical comparison with the standard L-BFGS and BNS methods is given. Klíčová slova: unconstrained minimization; variable metric methods; limited-memory methods; variationally derived methods; arithmetic operations reduction; global convergence Plné texty jsou dostupné v digitálním repozitáři NUŠL
Some modifications of the limited-memory variable metric optimization methods

Several modifications of the limited-memory variable metric (or quasi-Newton) line search methods for large scale unconstrained optimization are investigated. First the block version of the symmetric ...

Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav
Ústav informatiky, 2023

On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs
Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.
2023 - anglický
Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount ofshortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of betweenness centrality. In this contribution, wefocus on betweenness-uniform graphs with betweenness centrality below one. Wedisprove a conjecture about the existence of a BUG with betweenness valueαforany rational numberαfrom the interval (3/4,∞) by showing that only very few be-tweenness centrality values below 6/7 are attained for at least one BUG. Furthermore,among graphs with diameter at least three, there are no betweenness-uniform graphswith a betweenness centrality smaller than one. In graphs of smaller diameter, thesame can be shown under a uniformity condition on the components of the comple-ment. Plné texty jsou dostupné v digitálním repozitáři Akademie Věd.
On the structure and values of betweenness centrality in dense betweenness-uniform graphs

Betweenness centrality is a network centrality measure based on the amount ofshortest paths passing through a given vertex. A graph is betweenness-uniform (BUG)if all vertices have an equal value of ...

Ghanbari, B.; Hartman, David; Jelínek, V.; Pokorná, Aneta; Šámal, R.; Valtr, P.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment
Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.
2023 - anglický
We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been chosen as a testing domain because solid validation campaign for PALM simulation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) over this quarter was documented in the past. The question of input data needed for such simulation and capability of the model to capture correctly the inlet profile and its turbulence structure provided by the wind-tunnel is discussed in the study The PALM dynamical core contains a solver for the Navier-Stokes equations. By default, the model uses the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach in which the bulk of the turbulent motions is explicitly resolved. It is well validated tool for simulations of the complex air-flow within the real urban canopy and also within its reduced scale provided by wind tunnel experiments. However the computed flow field between the testing buildings did not correspond well to the measured wind velocity in some points. Different setting of the inlet boundary condition was tested but none of them gave completely developed turbulent flow generated by vortex generators and castellated barrier wall place at the entrance of the aerodynamic section of the wind tunnel.\n Klíčová slova: large eddy simulation; wind tunnel; atmospheric boundary layer; PALM model; turbulence Dokument je dostupný na externích webových stránkách.
Different Boundary Conditions For LES Solver PALM 6.0 Used for ABL in Tunnel Experiment

We tried to reproduce results measured in the wind tunnel experiment with a CFD simulation provided by numerical model PALM. A realistic buildings layout from the Prague-Dejvice quarter has been ...

Řezníček, Hynek; Geletič, Jan; Bureš, Martin; Krč, Pavel; Resler, Jaroslav; Vrbová, Kateřina; Trush, Arsenii; Michálek, Petr; Beneš, L.; Sühring, M.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Epidemiologické modely s agenty
Neruda, Roman
2023 - český
Tento příspěvek je jemným úvodem do problematiky agentních modelů a jejich aplikací v epidemiologickém modelování. Představíme agentní modely jednak z hlediska informatiky, jednak jako nástroj modelování v jiných vědních disciplínách. V příkladové studii ukážeme model s agenty a sociální sítí jejich kontaktů, který slouží pro simulaci vývoje epidemie a vlivu protiepidemických opatření. Plné texty jsou dostupné na jednotlivých ústavech Akademie věd ČR.
Epidemiologické modely s agenty

Tento příspěvek je jemným úvodem do problematiky agentních modelů a jejich aplikací v epidemiologickém modelování. Představíme agentní modely jednak z hlediska informatiky, jednak jako nástroj ...

Neruda, Roman
Ústav informatiky, 2023

From John Graunt to Adolphe Quetelet: on the Origins Of Demography
Kalina, Jan
2023 - anglický
John Graunt (1620-1674) and Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) were two important personalities, who contributed to the origins of demography. As they both developed statistical techniques for the analysis of demographic data, they are important also from the point of view of history of statistics. The contributions of both Graunt and Quetelet especially to the development of mortality tables and models are recalled in this paper. Already from the 17th century, the available mortality tables were exploited for computing life annuities. Also the contribution of selected personalities inspired by Graunt are recalled here, the work of Christian Huygens, Jacob Bernoulli, or Abraham de Moivre is discussed to document that the historical development of statistics and probability theory was connected with the development of demography. Klíčová slova: history of demography; history of statistics; probability theory; moral statistics; mortality tables Dokument je dostupný na externích webových stránkách.
From John Graunt to Adolphe Quetelet: on the Origins Of Demography

John Graunt (1620-1674) and Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) were two important personalities, who contributed to the origins of demography. As they both developed statistical techniques for the analysis ...

Kalina, Jan
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Etika AI: Přehled současné debaty v kontextu energetiky
Černý, David; Trčka, M.; Kolaříková, L.; Hvorecký, J.; Pelikán, Emil; Hříbek, T.; Novotný, D.; Wiedermann, Jiří
2023 - český
Plné texty jsou dostupné na jednotlivých ústavech Akademie věd ČR.
Etika AI: Přehled současné debaty v kontextu energetiky

Černý, David; Trčka, M.; Kolaříková, L.; Hvorecký, J.; Pelikán, Emil; Hříbek, T.; Novotný, D.; Wiedermann, Jiří
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Beyond the Erdős–Sós conjecture
Davoodi, Akbar; Piguet, Diana; Řada, Hanka; Sanhueza-Matamala, N.
2023 - anglický
We prove an asymptotic version of a tree-containment conjecture of Klimošová, Piguet and Rozhoň [European J. Combin. 88 (2020), 103106] for graphs with quadratically many edges. The result implies that the asymptotic version of the Erdős-Sós conjecture in the setting of dense graphs is correct. Plné texty jsou dostupné v digitálním repozitáři Akademie Věd.
Beyond the Erdős–Sós conjecture

We prove an asymptotic version of a tree-containment conjecture of Klimošová, Piguet and Rozhoň [European J. Combin. 88 (2020), 103106] for graphs with quadratically many edges. The result implies ...

Davoodi, Akbar; Piguet, Diana; Řada, Hanka; Sanhueza-Matamala, N.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Rooting algebraic vertices of convergent sequences
Hartman, David; Hons, T.; Nešetřil, J.
2023 - anglický
Structural convergence is a framework for convergence of graphs by Nešetřil andOssona de Mendez that unifies the dense (left) graph convergence and Benjamini-Schramm convergence. They posed a problem asking whether for a given sequenceof graphs (Gn) converging to a limit L and a vertexrofLit is possible to find asequence of vertices (rn) such thatLrooted atris the limit of the graphsGnrootedatrn. A counterexample was found by Christofides and Král’, but they showed thatthe statement holds for almost all vertices r of L. We offer another perspective to theoriginal problem by considering the size of definable sets to which the rootrbelongs.We prove that if r is an algebraic vertex (i.e. belongs to a finite definable set), thesequence of roots (rn) always exists. Plné texty jsou dostupné v digitálním repozitáři Akademie Věd.
Rooting algebraic vertices of convergent sequences

Structural convergence is a framework for convergence of graphs by Nešetřil andOssona de Mendez that unifies the dense (left) graph convergence and Benjamini-Schramm convergence. They posed a problem ...

Hartman, David; Hons, T.; Nešetřil, J.
Ústav informatiky, 2023

DC 5.3 Odhady kovariancí odhadnutého pole koncentrací
Brabec, Marek; Malý, Marek; Malá, Ivana
2023 - český
BIBLIOGRAFICKÉ ÚDAJE: Výzkumná zpráva č. SS02030031-V95. Praha: ICS CAS, 2023. 22 s. ANOTACE: Obsahem tohoto dokumentu je popis výsledku typu O: SS02030031-V95, Odhady kovariancí odhadnutého prostorového pole koncentrací. Jde o postup odhadu kovariančních parametrů jak samotného latentního Gaussovského prostorového pole, tak o odhad kovariance regresních parametrů v modelu. Dále též formulace modelu malého měřítka vybraného z dříve testovaných variant. Testování algoritmu optimalizace umístění stanic na předvybraném scénáři. Developing estimation of relevant covariance matrix entries for the spatial model as a necessary part for computing pointwise standard errors (as formalizations of local uncertainty for the gridded estimates). They, in turn are precursors for optimization algorithms aimed at measurement network design problems (location of added and/or deleted measurement points). Klíčová slova: spatial estimation; covariances; uncertainty Plné texty jsou dostupné na jednotlivých ústavech Akademie věd ČR.
DC 5.3 Odhady kovariancí odhadnutého pole koncentrací

BIBLIOGRAFICKÉ ÚDAJE: Výzkumná zpráva č. SS02030031-V95. Praha: ICS CAS, 2023. 22 s. ANOTACE: Obsahem tohoto dokumentu je popis výsledku typu O: SS02030031-V95, Odhady kovariancí odhadnutého ...

Brabec, Marek; Malý, Marek; Malá, Ivana
Ústav informatiky, 2023

Some Robust Approaches to Reducing the Complexity of Economic Data
Kalina, Jan
2023 - anglický
The recent advent of complex (and potentially big) data in economics requires modern and effective tools for their analysis including tools for reducing the dimensionality (complexity) of the given data. This paper starts with recalling the importance of Big Data in economics and with characterizing the main categories of dimension reduction techniques. While there have already been numerous techniques for dimensionality reduction available, this work is interested in methods that are robust to the presence of outlying measurements (outliers) in the economic data. Particularly, methods based on implicit weighting assigned to individual observations are developed in this paper. As the main contribution, this paper proposes three novel robust methods of dimension reduction. One method is a dimension reduction within a robust regularized linear regression, namely a sparse version of the least weighted squares estimator. The other two methods are robust versions of feature extraction methods popular in econometrics: robust principal component analysis and robust factor analysis. Klíčová slova: dimensionality reduction; Big Data; variable selection; robustness; sparsity Dokument je dostupný na externích webových stránkách.
Some Robust Approaches to Reducing the Complexity of Economic Data

The recent advent of complex (and potentially big) data in economics requires modern and effective tools for their analysis including tools for reducing the dimensionality (complexity) of the given ...

Kalina, Jan
Ústav informatiky, 2023

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