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Novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM
Šlouf, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa; Strachota, Beata; Strachota, Adam; Nebesářová, Jana; Týč, Jiří; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Skoupý, Radim
2022 - English
The report contains the detailed analysis of novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM. Keywords: novel embedding resins; 3D-SEM microscopy; higher e-beam resistance Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM

The report contains the detailed analysis of novel embedding resins for 3D-SEM.

Šlouf, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa; Strachota, Beata; Strachota, Adam; Nebesářová, Jana; Týč, Jiří; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Skoupý, Radim
Ústav makromolekulární chemie, 2022

XXIV Czech-Polish seminar: Structural and ferroelectric phase transitions: Book of abstracts and program
Pokorný, Jan; Bubnov, Alexej; Janovská, Marie
2022 - English
This is the Book of Abstracts for the XXIV Czech-Polish Seminar (CPSEM-2022 conference) held in Harrachov (Czech Republic) on May 23 - 27, 2022. The special objective of the conference is expressed in the conference subtitle: Structural and Ferroelectric Phase Transitions. The continuous worldwide interest to this conference series is proving that it has a respected position within the series of International/European conferences covering all interdisciplinary field of the research related to structural and ferroelectric phase transitions. At the CPSEM-2022 conference there were about 100 participants from 10 countries delivered 8 tutorial lectures for early stage researchers, 8 invited lectures and selected 34 oral contributions. More than 55 posters were presented during two poster sessions. Keywords: Czech-Polish seminar; structural and ferroelectric phase transition Available at various institutes of the ASCR
XXIV Czech-Polish seminar: Structural and ferroelectric phase transitions: Book of abstracts and program

This is the Book of Abstracts for the XXIV Czech-Polish Seminar (CPSEM-2022 conference) held in Harrachov (Czech Republic) on May 23 - 27, 2022. The special objective of the conference is expressed in ...

Pokorný, Jan; Bubnov, Alexej; Janovská, Marie
Fyzikální ústav, 2022

Modeling the spread of loanwords in South-East Asia using sailing navigation software and Bayesian networks
Kratochvíl, F.; Kratochvíl, Václav; Saad, G.; Vomlel, Jiří
2022 - English
A loanword is a word permanently adopted from one language and incorporated into another language without translation. In this paper, we study loanwords in the South-East Asia Archipelago, home to a large number of languages. Our paper is inspired by the works of Hoffmann et al. (2021) Bayesian methods are applied to probabilistic modeling of family trees representing the history of language families and by Haynie et al. (2014) modeling the diffusion of a special class of loanwords, so-called Wanderw ̈orter in languages of Australia, North America, and South America. We assume that in the South-East Asia Archipelago Wanderwörter spread along specific maritime trade routes whose geographical characteristics can help unravel the history of Wanderwörter diffusion in the area. For millennia trade was conducted using sailing ships which were constrained by the monsoon system and in certain areas also by strong sea currents. Therefore rather than the geographical distances, the travel times of sailing ships should be considered as a major factor determining the intensity of contact among cultures. We use sailing navigation software to estimate travel times between different ports and show that the estimated travel times correspond well to the travel times of a Chinese map of the sea trade routes from the early seventeenth century. We model the spread of loanwords using a probabilistic graphical model - a Bayesian network. We design a novel heuristic Bayesian network structure learning algorithm that learns the structure as a union of spanning trees for graphs of all loanwords in the training dataset. We compare this algorithm with BIC optimal Bayesian networks by measuring how well these models predict the true presence/absence of a loanword. Interestingly, Bayesian networks learned by our heuristic spanning tree-based algorithm provide better results than the BIC optimal Bayesian networks. Keywords: loanwords; Bayesian methods; probabilistic graphical model Fulltext is available at external website.
Modeling the spread of loanwords in South-East Asia using sailing navigation software and Bayesian networks

A loanword is a word permanently adopted from one language and incorporated into another language without translation. In this paper, we study loanwords in the South-East Asia Archipelago, home to a ...

Kratochvíl, F.; Kratochvíl, Václav; Saad, G.; Vomlel, Jiří
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2022

Approaches to dynamical analysis of rotors with parameters of uncertain magnitudes
Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Kozánek, Jan; Košina, Jan; Cibulka, Jan
2022 - English
In many cases, the rotor configuration or loading characteristics are described by parameters of uncertain magnitude. Several procedures were developed to analyse such systems. This paper deals with the approach based on application of the fuzzy numbers. The investigated mechanical system is a rotor supported by hydrodynamic bearings. The parameters of its loading have uncertain values. Keywords: rotors; uncertain parameters; fuzzy numbers approach Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Approaches to dynamical analysis of rotors with parameters of uncertain magnitudes

In many cases, the rotor configuration or loading characteristics are described by parameters of uncertain magnitude. Several procedures were developed to analyse such systems. This paper deals with ...

Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Kozánek, Jan; Košina, Jan; Cibulka, Jan
Ústav termomechaniky, 2022

Analysis of textile waste streams in the Czech Republic
Shtukaturova, Anastasia
2022 - English
Our results confirm that the Czech Republic is not well prepared to fulfill the ambitious goals of the CEAP in respect to textile waste because of continually growing volumes of this type of the waste and hardly available official data about its production, lack of recycling technologies and obsolete waste collection system.\n Keywords: textile waste streams; analysis; new waste treatment law Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Analysis of textile waste streams in the Czech Republic

Our results confirm that the Czech Republic is not well prepared to fulfill the ambitious goals of the CEAP in respect to textile waste because of continually growing volumes of this type of the waste ...

Shtukaturova, Anastasia
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

What happens to microplastics in nature
Spáčilová, Markéta
2022 - English
This work was focused on preparation of microplastic particles which correspond to microplastics in the environment. The five most used plastics (polyethylene, polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene glycol terephthalate, and polystyrene) were used for preparation. Microplastics were prepared by grinding common used plastics to match the actual microplastics present in the environment as closely as possible. The shape and size of the prepared particles\nwere obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Raman and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the microplastic structures. Simultaneously, methodology to determine the amount of microplastic particles in simulated water samples was developed. Keywords: microplastic particles; raman spectroscopy; uv degradation Available in digital repository of the ASCR
What happens to microplastics in nature

This work was focused on preparation of microplastic particles which correspond to microplastics in the environment. The five most used plastics (polyethylene, polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene, ...

Spáčilová, Markéta
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

Adaptive synthesis of functional amphiphilic dendrons for drug nanocarrier assembly
Edr, Antonín
2022 - English
In this work, an adaptive synthesis of new type of amphiphilic dendrons for nanocarrier purposes will be presented. This methodology was applied in preparation of vast library of substrates. Keywords: symmetrical dendrons; drug nanocarrier assembly; drug delivery Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Adaptive synthesis of functional amphiphilic dendrons for drug nanocarrier assembly

In this work, an adaptive synthesis of new type of amphiphilic dendrons for nanocarrier purposes will be presented. This methodology was applied in preparation of vast library of substrates.

Edr, Antonín
Ústav chemických procesů, 2022

Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace
Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
2022 - Czech
Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. Mezi žáky s trojkou chce na VŠ jen 39 %. Mezi základními školami panují v přísnosti známkování velké rozdíly. Klasifikace žáků se stejnými akademickými výsledky se mezi školami liší v průměru o celý klasifikační stupeň. Při stejných dovednostech mají žáci z přísně známkujících škol nižší studijní ambice oproti žákům z mírně známkujících škol. Známky na vysvědčení také často představují jedno z přijímacích kritérií na středních školách a víceletých gymnáziích. Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování a zásadní role známek při plánování budoucí vzdělávací dráhy mohou tedy vést k chybným rozhodnutím žáků a rodičů, neefektivitám ve vzdělávacím systému a k suboptimální alokaci talentů. For students and their parents, school grades are a key piece of information that helps to shape educational and career ambitions. We find that 87% of Czech ninth graders with an A in mathematics want to go to university. Among students with a C, only 39% have the same aspiration. There is wide variation in the strictness of grading across Czech primary schools. On average, grades awarded can differ by as much as a full letter grade between stricter and more moderately grading schools. Even when they in fact have measurably equivalent skills, students from schools that grade more strictly have lower academic aspirations than students from schools that grade more moderately. Grades on report cards are also often among the admissions criteria for secondary schools and high schools. Differences in the strictness of grading and the crucial roles of grades in planning future educational paths can therefore lead to misguided decisions by students and parents, inefficiencies in the education system, and suboptimal allocation of talent. Keywords: primary schools; school grades; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Rozdíly v přísnosti známkování žáků a dopady na vzdělanostní aspirace

Pro žáky a jejich rodiče představují známky ve škole klíčovou informaci formující i vzdělávací a kariérní ambice. 87 % žáků devátých ročníků s jedničkou z matematiky chce vystudovat vysokou školu. ...

Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, Tomáš
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

100 years of the Friedmann equation
Křížek, Michal
2022 - English
In 1922, Alexander Friedmann applied Einstein’s equations to a three-dimensional sphere to describe the evolution of our universe. In this way he obtained a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (called after him) for the expansion function representing the radius of that sphere. At present, the standard cosmological ΛCDM model of the universe is based just on the Friedmann equation. It needs a significant amount of dark matter, about six times that of the usual baryonic matter, besides an even larger amount of dark energy to be consistent with the real universe. But to date, both dark matter and dark energy have remained without concrete evidence based on direct physical measurements. We present several arguments showing that such a claimed amount of dark matter and dark energy can only be the result of vast overestimation, incorrect extrapolations, and that it does not correspond to the real universe. The spatial part of our universe seems to be locally flat and thus it can be locally modeled by the Euclidean space. However, Friedmann did not consider the flat space with zero curvature. Therefore, in the second part of this paper we will derive a general form of the corresponding metric tensor satisfying Einstein’s equations with zero right-hand side. Keywords: Einstein's equations; modeling error; incorrect extrapolations; dark matter Fulltext is available at external website.
100 years of the Friedmann equation

In 1922, Alexander Friedmann applied Einstein’s equations to a three-dimensional sphere to describe the evolution of our universe. In this way he obtained a nonlinear ordinary differential equation ...

Křížek, Michal
Matematický ústav, 2022

Proximity to help matters: the effect of access to centers of legal aid on bankruptcy rates
Hrehová, Kristína; Domonkos, Š.
2022 - English
Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its underuse by eligible debtors. Using a large administrative dataset of personal bankruptcies, we study the impact of spatial distance from public Centers for Legal Aid (CLAs) on the regional incidence of personal bankruptcy in Slovakia. We avoid endogeneity by focusing on the increased availability of legal aid controlling for the expected\ndistance from the nearest CLA, which serves as the first contact point in the process of filing for personal bankruptcy in the Slovak Republic. Distance from these legal aid centers has a significant impact on personal bankruptcy rates: the closer the nearest CLA is, the larger the prevalence of personal bankruptcy is in a given municipality. We quantify the impact of service access on personal bankruptcy rates, showing that improved access to free legal aid has both a statistically and substantively significant impact on the use of personal bankruptcy by the public. At the end of the almost 3-year-long period analyzed, municipalities with good access to CLAs had 3.3 bankruptcies more per 1,000 inhabitants than municipalities with weak access to CLAs. This effect is significant, as the average national bankruptcy rate until December 2019 reached 6.3 bankruptcies per 1,000 persons. Keywords: personal bankruptcy; insolvency; policy analysis Fulltext is available at external website.
Proximity to help matters: the effect of access to centers of legal aid on bankruptcy rates

Personal bankruptcy aims to provide a fresh start to debtors. While bankruptcy is often the only solution to financial distress, large spatial distance to affordable legal services may result in its ...

Hrehová, Kristína; Domonkos, Š.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2022

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